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Congenital heart disease (CHD) is unfortunately quite common, occurring in just under 1% of live births. With the continuing evolution of treatment modalities for patients with CHD, both in the cardiac operating rooms and cardiac catheterization suites, the survival of these patients has significantly improved, albeit with varying degrees of physiologic impairment and/or sequelae. In fact, the population of adults with CHD is growing at a rate of approximately 5% per year. Multiple studies have illustrated that children with CHD are at higher risk for perioperative cardiac arrest compared to the general population during anesthesia and surgery. Additionally, children with CHD also experience increased morbidity, mortality, and increased length of hospital stay.
The ability to interpret cardiac data to determine an individual patient’s cardiac anatomy and physiology is paramount in developing a safe plan for anesthesia or sedation. Although cardiac lesions can be placed into broad diagnostic categories, within each category and for each lesion significant variation can exist. For example, infants with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) may have obstruction to pulmonary blood flow ranging from minimal to severe; if obstruction is minimal, they may exhibit signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation or if severe, they may be overtly cyanotic. Patients who have been described as “pink tets” at home may, during the stress imposed by anesthesia and surgical manipulation, exhibit significant tet spells. Wide pathophysiologic variability exists even within a given lesion and each patient must be considered on an individual basis, rather than being defined by his or her diagnosis. Patients who have undergone corrective surgeries, although “repaired,” often have important residua or sequelae that must be noted.
With the number of patients living with congenital heart disease steadily increasing, relevant training in anesthesia care for these patients is becoming ever more important. Written by experts in the field, this highly illustrated book succinctly reviews the pathophysiology of congenital cardiac lesions along with important anesthetic implications for each. Case scenarios cover patients of wide-ranging ages, with a focus on care in non-cardiac operating room settings, including the general operating room, cardiac catheterization laboratory and radiology. Divided into sections corresponding to the anatomic classification of each cardiac lesion, the book includes keywords for easy cross-referencing. Several lesions have multiple scenarios presented in order to allow readers to learn how to discern more critically ill patients. The stepwise approach to understanding complex lesions provides a readily accessible guide for all anesthesia providers who care for patients with congenital heart disease. The book is also a useful tool for intraoperative teaching.
A novel paediatric disease, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children, has emerged during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic.
To describe the short-term evolution of cardiac complications and associated risk factors in patients with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children.
Retrospective single-centre study of confirmed multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children treated from 29 March, 2020 to 1 September, 2020. Cardiac complications during the acute phase were defined as decreased systolic function, coronary artery abnormalities, pericardial effusion, or mitral and/or tricuspid valve regurgitation. Patients with or without cardiac complications were compared with chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum.
Thirty-nine children with median (interquartile range) age 7.8 (3.6–12.7) years were included. Nineteen (49%) patients developed cardiac complications including systolic dysfunction (33%), valvular regurgitation (31%), coronary artery abnormalities (18%), and pericardial effusion (5%). At the time of the most recent follow-up, at a median (interquartile range) of 49 (26–61) days, cardiac complications resolved in 16/19 (84%) patients. Two patients had persistent mild systolic dysfunction and one patient had persistent coronary artery abnormality. Children with cardiac complications were more likely to have higher N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (p = 0.01), higher white blood cell count (p = 0.01), higher neutrophil count (p = 0.02), severe lymphopenia (p = 0.05), use of milrinone (p = 0.03), and intensive care requirement (p = 0.04).
Patients with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children had a high rate of cardiac complications in the acute phase, with associated inflammatory markers. Although cardiac complications resolved in 84% of patients, further long-term studies are needed to assess if the cardiac abnormalities (transient or persistent) are associated with major cardiac events.
The influence of surface melt on the flow of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers remains poorly known and in situ observations are few. We use field observations to link surface meltwater forcing to glacier-wide diurnal velocity variations on East Greenland's Helheim Glacier over two summer melt seasons. We observe diurnal variations in glacier speed that peak ~6.5 h after daily maximum insolation and extend from the terminus region to the equilibrium line. Both the amplitude of the diurnal speed variation and its sensitivity to daily melt are largest at the glacier terminus and decrease up-glacier, suggesting that the magnitude of the response is controlled not only by melt input volume and temporal variability, but also by background effective pressure, which approaches zero at the terminus. Our results provide evidence that basal lubrication by meltwater drives diurnal velocity variations at Greenland's marine-terminating glaciers in a similar manner to alpine glaciers and Greenland's land-terminating outlet glaciers.
This series describes three adolescent females who presented with chest pain and ventricular dysfunction related to acute coronary ischemia secondary to Takayasu’s arteritis with varied courses of disease progression leading to a diverse range of therapies including cardiac transplantation. While Takayasu’s arteritis is rare in childhood, it should be strongly considered in any adolescent female presenting with systemic inflammation and chest pain consistent with myocardial infarction. A high index of suspicion can lead to early detection and aggressive management of the underlying vasculitis reducing associated morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this report is to describe the challenges in the clinical diagnosis and management of Takayasu’s arteritis with myocardial infarction. We also seek to enhance awareness about unique presentations of Takayasu’s arteritis within the paediatric community.
Psychosis rates are higher among some migrant groups. We hypothesized that psychosis in migrants is associated with cumulative social disadvantage during different phases of migration.
We used data from the EUropean Network of National Schizophrenia Networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) case–control study. We defined a set of three indicators of social disadvantage for each phase: pre-migration, migration and post-migration. We examined whether social disadvantage in the pre- and post-migration phases, migration adversities, and mismatch between achievements and expectations differed between first-generation migrants with first-episode psychosis and healthy first-generation migrants, and tested whether this accounted for differences in odds of psychosis in multivariable logistic regression models.
In total, 249 cases and 219 controls were assessed. Pre-migration (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06–2.44, p = 0.027) and post-migration social disadvantages (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.02–3.51, p = 0.044), along with expectations/achievements mismatch (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.26, p = 0.014) were all significantly associated with psychosis. Migration adversities (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.672–2.06, p = 0.568) were not significantly related to the outcome. Finally, we found a dose–response effect between the number of adversities across all phases and odds of psychosis (⩾6: OR 14.09, 95% CI 2.06–96.47, p = 0.007).
The cumulative effect of social disadvantages before, during and after migration was associated with increased odds of psychosis in migrants, independently of ethnicity or length of stay in the country of arrival. Public health initiatives that address the social disadvantages that many migrants face during the whole migration process and post-migration psychological support may reduce the excess of psychosis in migrants.
Northwest Arkansas, particularly Benton and Washington counties, is one of the highest COVID-19 hot spots in the United States (US), with more than half of all reported cases in this area identifying as Latinx or Pacific Islander, even though these communities account for less than 20% of the overall population. The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) leveraged their existing relationship with 18 key community partners. Partners collaboratively developed a COVID-19 Response Strategy to ensure coordinated effort for Latinx and Pacific Islander communities with four interrelated strategies: health education, testing, contact tracing, and supported quarantine/case management.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Prenatal cannabinoid use is increasing and more studies are needed to describe the neurodevelopmental impact on the fetus. However, pregnant cannabinoid users are a “hidden population,” which makes identification of these individuals for research difficult. Our study will employ three methods of recruitment and evaluate the success of each method. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We will recruit a total of 40 women in the third trimester of pregnancy who regularly use cannabinoid products thought to contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD) throughout their pregnancies, and 20 control pregnant women who do not use those products. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of prenatal cannabinoid use on the neurodevelopment of their offspring over the first year of life. We will employ three recruitment methods. First, targeted recruitment will occur in two university-based obstetrical clinics, where the obstetrician will present the study material and contact information. Second, we will utilize social media advertisements targeted to a specific demographic of Facebook users. Finally, we will employ the traditional method of distributing flyers in a non-targeted manner. We will track methods of recruitment success and gather information from the mothers on their preferences for recruitment approaches. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Recruitment will start in January 2020 and continue for several months. We anticipate that the targeted method will yield the highest number of participants, and participants with the best fit for the inclusion criteria. However, it is possible that those women will be deterred by fear of having their drug use status revealed to their care providers, even though all research activity will occur independently from clinic visits and will not be transmitted to the electronic health record. The inclusion of a control group will also help foster “anonymity” for participants. The social media method has the potential for the greatest reach, but we expect many of these potential participants will fail to meet inclusion/exclusion criteria, as this is not as targeted as the first method. We anticipate a similar issue with the flyer-based approach. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Optimizing recruitment of hidden and sensitive populations is crucial for clinical and translational research. Our goal is to identify strategies that can lead to best practices for engagement of those populations. Our conclusions could be applied in recruitment of sensitive populations for other clinical and translational research projects.
Daily use of high-potency cannabis has been reported to carry a high risk for developing a psychotic disorder. However, the evidence is mixed on whether any pattern of cannabis use is associated with a particular symptomatology in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients.
We analysed data from 901 FEP patients and 1235 controls recruited across six countries, as part of the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We used item response modelling to estimate two bifactor models, which included general and specific dimensions of psychotic symptoms in patients and psychotic experiences in controls. The associations between these dimensions and cannabis use were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models analyses.
In patients, there was a linear relationship between the positive symptom dimension and the extent of lifetime exposure to cannabis, with daily users of high-potency cannabis having the highest score (B = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56). Moreover, negative symptoms were more common among patients who never used cannabis compared with those with any pattern of use (B = −0.22; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.07). In controls, psychotic experiences were associated with current use of cannabis but not with the extent of lifetime use. Neither patients nor controls presented differences in depressive dimension related to cannabis use.
Our findings provide the first large-scale evidence that FEP patients with a history of daily use of high-potency cannabis present with more positive and less negative symptoms, compared with those who never used cannabis or used low-potency types.
Research participants want to receive results from studies in which they participate. However, health researchers rarely share the results of their studies beyond scientific publication. Little is known about the barriers researchers face in returning study results to participants.
Using a mixed-methods design, health researchers (N = 414) from more than 40 US universities were asked about barriers to providing results to participants. Respondents were recruited from universities with Clinical and Translational Science Award programs and Prevention Research Centers.
Respondents reported the percent of their research where they experienced each of the four barriers to disseminating results to participants: logistical/methodological, financial, systems, and regulatory. A fifth barrier, investigator capacity, emerged from data analysis. Training for research faculty and staff, promotion and tenure incentives, and funding agencies supporting dissemination of results to participants were solutions offered to overcoming barriers.
Study findings add to literature on research dissemination by documenting health researchers’ perceived barriers to sharing study results with participants. Implications for policy and practice suggest that additional resources and training could help reduce dissemination barriers and increase the return of results to participants.
The final rule for the protection of human subjects requires that informed consent be “in language understandable to the subject” and mandates that “the informed consent must be organized in such a way that facilitates comprehension.” This study assessed the readability of Institutional Review Board-approved informed consent forms at our institution, implemented an intervention to improve the readability of consent forms, and measured the first year impact of the intervention.
Readability assessment was conducted on a sample of 217 Institutional Review Board-approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015. A plain language informed consent template was developed and implemented and readability was assessed again after 1 year.
The mean readability of the baseline sample was 10th grade. The mean readability of the post-intervention sample (n=82) was seventh grade.
Providing investigators with a plain language informed consent template and training can promote improved readability of informed consents for research.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Develop a plain language informed consent template that met IRB and regulatory requirements. Evaluate the effectiveness of the template at improving the readability of informed consents. Field test the informed consent with low health literacy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a retrospective analysis of over 200 UAMS IRB approved, investigator initiated informed consents from 2013 to 2015 to determine the readability before intervention. The mean grade level readabilities were derived from the results of 3 readability formulas (Flesch-Kincaid, SMOG, and Fry) using open-source readability tools. A plain language informed consent template that meets IRB and regulatory requirements was developed, adhering to health literacy best practices for written communication. The template was made available to investigators as an optional resource, and IRB committees were trained on use of the template. In addition, a focus group will be conducted to qualitatively assess understandability of the template with study participants identified as having inadequate health literacy. Data analysis will include readability assessment of IRB approved informed consents post intervention with and without use of the plain language template, as well as qualitative feedback from focus group participants. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The retrospective analysis revealed a mean readability of 10th grade for IRB approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015 (n=217). The readability of the developed plain language template was 5th grade. Preliminary post-intervention results show adoption of the template by investigators (n=16) resulted in informed consents with a mean readability of 7th grade (range 6–9th grade), compared to a mean of 10th grade (range 7–11th grade) for the comparator (“no adoption” group, n=24). Data collection will continue through May 2017. The focus group is forthcoming and results will be included in the poster. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Low health literacy is common in individuals with healthcare disparities and can limit their participation in clinical research. Few studies have examined interventions to address this barrier to research. Preliminary results of this study support the utilization of a plain language informed consent template in investigator-initiated research. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of stakeholder engagement among CTSA leadership, health literacy experts, the institutional review board, investigators, and research subjects in the development and testing of this intervention to make informed consents “understandable to the subject” while containing all required elements.