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Introduction: Despite the general agreement that normal jealousy is heterogenous, little is known about this specific topic.
Methods: In the present study, we explored the possibility of distinguishing between four subtypes of “normal” jealousy (depressive, anxious, obsessive, and paranoid) amongst a cohort of 500 healthy university students by means of a specifically designed questionnaire, “Questionario della gelosia” (QUEGE). QUEGE is a self-report instrument of 30 items which explores the presence, frequency, and duration of feelings and behaviors related to jealousy. It was devised to investigate four hypothetical psychopathological profiles: depressive, paranoid, obsessive, and anxious.
Results: The factor analysis identified five rather than four clear-cut factors: self-esteem, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, fear of being abandoned, and obsessionality. Women showed statistically significant lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of obsessionality than men. Younger age (<25 years) was associated with lower self-esteem and higher levels of paranoia and obsessionality, while being single was associated with lower self-esteem and higher levels of obsessionality.
Conclusion: The present study provides evidence of the reliability and validity of the QUEGE instrument, which seems to identify the presence of five psychopathological dimensions within the jealousy phenomenon in the general population.
Romantic attachment is the establishment of a relationship with a partner and is strongly influenced by the individual's attachment style. While several studies have shown that attachment style may contribute to the development of psychopathology, less information is available for romantic attachment.The aim of the present study was to compare romantic attachment styles among patients with different mood and anxiety disorders and control subjects.
The study sample included a total of 126 outpatients, 62 of whom were affected by bipolar disorders, 22 by major depressive disorder (MDD), 27 by panic disorder, 15 by obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 126 healthy control subjects. Romantic attachment was assessed by means of the Italian version of the “Experiences in Close Relationships” (ECR) questionnaire.
The results showed that the secure attachment style was more frequent in the control group, while the preoccupied style prevailed among the patients, with no difference among the diagnostic categories.The scores of the ECR anxiety and avoidance scales were significantly higher in the patients than in the control subjects. A trend toward higher ECR anxiety scale scores in women with panic disorder was detected, with the opposite being true for MDD.
Our findings indicate that patients with different psychiatric disorders would be characterized by higher scores on both the ECR anxiety and the avoidance scales, as well as by the preoccupied style of attachment. In addition, women with panic disorder and MDD seem to be characterized by, respectively, higher and lower scores of the ECR anxiety scale than men.
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