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NIH offers multiple mentored career development award mechanisms. By building on the UC Davis Clinical and Translational Science Center (CTSC) from its initial NIH funding in 2006, we created an institution-wide K scholar resource. We investigated subsequent NIH funding for K scholars and to what extent CTSC research resources were used. Using NIH RePORTER, we created a database of UC Davis investigators who obtained K01, K08, K23, K25, or K99, as well as institutional KL2 or K12 awards and tracked CTSC research resource use and subsequent funding success. Overall, 94 scholars completed K training between 2007 and 2020, of which 70 participated in one of four institutional, NIH-funded K programs. An additional 103 scholars completed a mentored clinical research training program. Of 94 K awardees, 61 (65%) later achieved NIH funding, with the majority receiving a subsequent individual K award. A higher proportion (73%) of funded scholars used CTSC resources compared to unfunded (48%). Biostatistics and Biomedical Informatics were most commonly used and 55% of scholars used one or more CTSC resource. We conclude that institutional commitment to create a K scholar platform and use of CTSC research resources is associated with high NIH funding rates for early career investigators.
Δ9-Desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, SCD-1) regulates the desaturation of SFA, mainly stearic and palmitic, to MUFA. Δ6-Desaturase (D6D) and Δ5-desaturase (D5D) are involved in the metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acid to polyunsaturated metabolites. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of different types of dietary fat on indices of fatty acid desaturase (FADS) activity (evaluated as product:precursor ratios) in plasma and skeletal muscle in human subjects. A high SCD-1 index has been related to obesity and metabolic disorders, while the D5D index is associated with insulin sensitivity. Fatty acid composition of serum and skeletal muscle lipids was analysed by GLC during a randomised, controlled, 3-month dietary intervention in healthy subjects. A comparison of the effects of a diet containing butter fat (SFA, n 17) with a diet containing monounsaturated fat (MUFA, n 17), keeping all other dietary components constant, showed a reduced SCD-1 activity index by 20 % on the MUFA diet compared with the SFA diet assessed in serum cholesteryl esters. The D6D and D5D indices remained unaffected. Supplementation with long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduced the SCD-1 index by a similar magnitude while the D6D index decreased and the D5D index increased. It is concluded that changes in the type of fat in the diet affect the indices of FADS activity in serum and skeletal muscle in human subjects. The desaturase activity indices estimated from the serum lipid ester composition are significantly related to corresponding indices studied in skeletal muscle phospholipids.
Cellulose biocomposites are widely used in industry as a low-cost engineering material with plant fiber reinforcement. However, chemical and microstructural heterogeneity causes low strength, low strain-to-failure, high moisture sensitivity, and odor and discoloration problems. Efforts toward improved performance through fiber orientation control, increased fiber lengths, and biopolymer use are reviewed. Interfacial strength control and moisture sensitivity are remaining challenges. As an attractive alternative reinforcement, high-quality cellulose nanofibers obtained by wood pulp fiber disintegration can be prepared at low cost. These nanofibers have high length/diameter ratios, diameters in the 5–15 nm range, and intrinsically superior physical properties. Wood cellulose nanofibers are interesting as an alternative reinforcement to more expensive nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes. Nanopaper and polymer matrix nanocomposites based on cellulose nanofiber networks show high strength, high work-of-fracture, low moisture adsorption, low thermal expansion, high thermal stability, high thermal conductivity, exceptional barrier properties, and high optical transparency. The favorable mechanical performance of bioinspired foams and low-density aerogels is reviewed. Future applications of cellulose biocomposites will be extended from the high-volume/low-cost end toward high-tech applications, where cellulose properties are fully exploited in nanostructured materials.
To examine the associations between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and other markers of cancer risk.
A cross-sectional survey within the population-based prospective Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) Study. Information on food habits was collected through the modified diet history method designed and validated for the MDC Study. Data on smoking and alcohol habits, leisure time physical activity, birth country, education, socioeconomic status and cohabitation status were collected through a questionnaire.
Malmö, the third largest city in Sweden.
All subjects who entered the MDC Study during winter 1991 to summer 1994 (men and women living in Malmö, aged between 46 and 68 years), with a total of 15 173.
Women consumed more fruit and vegetables than men. Low consumption of both fruits and vegetables was associated with unfavourable nutrient profiles: higher percentage of energy from fat and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients and dietary fibre. Low consumption was also associated with smoking, low leisure time physical activity, low education and being born in Sweden. High age was associated with low vegetable consumption in both genders. Alcohol intake was positively associated with vegetable consumption in both genders, while both zero and high alcohol consumers had low fruit consumption. Men residing without a partner consumed less fruits and vegetables than other men. There were very weak or no independent associations between socioeconomic status and fruit/vegetable consumption.
This study indicates that several established risk markers and risk factors of cancer may be independently associated with low fruit and vegetable consumption. The findings suggest that the adverse effects of factors such as smoking, low physical activity and a high-fat diet could partly be explained by low consumption of fruit or vegetables. The implied health benefits of a low or moderate alcohol consumption may be similarly confounded by high consumption of fruit or vegetables.
Milk fat is high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and high intakes of SFA are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the potential risk of a first-ever acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to the estimated milk-fat intake, reflected as the proportions of pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) in serum lipid esters. This was evaluated in a study population selected within the Västerbotten Intervention Program and the northern Sweden ‘Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular disease’ survey populations. A prospective case–control design was used. The proportions of the biomarkers were lower in the cases (n78) than in the controls (n156), who were matched for age, sex, sampling time and geographical region. The standardised odds ratios of becoming an AMI case were between 0·7 and 0·8 for the biomarkers. The proportions of 15:0 and 17:0 in serum phospholipids were significantly and negatively correlated to serum concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator, triacylglycerols, insulin, specific insulin, pro-insulin and leptin (all P<0·0001), suggesting a negative relationship to the insulin-resistance syndrome and the risk of CHD. Adjustment for BMI did not materially change the relationships. Although there seems to be a negative association between milk-fat intake as mirrored by the proportions of 15:0 and 17:0 in serum lipid esters and a first-ever AMI, adjustment for clinical risk factors removed this relationship.
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