To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The purpose of the current study was to research the factors influencing thyroid volume (TVOL) in 6–12-year-old children and update the reference values. A cross-sectional study was carried out in iodine-sufficient areas of four provinces in China. Urine, edible salt and drinking water samples were collected from children. Children’s height, weight and TVOL were measured. Ridge regression was used to screen variables for solving the multicollinearity problem. Quantile regression was used to analyse the relationship between the quantiles of TVOL and other variables. In total, 5653 children aged 6–12 years were enrolled in this study, including 2838 boys and 2815 girls. There was no significant difference in TVOL between boys and girls (P > 0·05). Spearman correlation analysis showed that total TVOL was positively correlated with age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA) and BMI, and the correlation coefficients were 0·616, 0·663, 0·669, 0·685 and 0·479, respectively. Among them, the correlation between TVOL and BSA was the strongest. According to the ridge regression results, age and BSA influenced TVOL, and the ridge regression coefficients were 0·13 and 0·94, respectively. Quantile regression further showed that age and BSA had significant influences on the whole TVOL distribution (P < 0·001). Therefore, the TVOL of children aged 6–12 years in China was mainly influenced by age and BSA, and reference values for TVOL of different genders based on age and BSA were established.
Considering the influence of body’s growth and development on thyroid volume (TVOL), whether five existed corrected methods could be applied to correct TVOL remains unclear, in terms of Chinese children’s increased growth and development trends. This study aimed to compare the applicability of five correction methods: Body Surface Area corrected Volume (BSAV), Body Mass Indicator corrected Volume (BMIV), Weight and Height corrected Volume Indicator (WHVI), Height corrected Volume Indicator 1 (HVI1) and Height corrected Volume Indicator 2 (HVI2) and to establish the reference values for correction methods. The data of Iodine Nutrition and Thyroid Function Survey were used to analyse the differences in TVOL between normal and abnormal thyroid function children. Data of National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Survey were used to compare five correction methods and to establish their reference values. The median urinary iodine concentrations of children surveyed were 256·1 μg/l in 2009 and 192·6 μg/l in 2019. No significant difference was found in TVOL and thyroid goitre rate between children with normal and abnormal thyroid function. In the determination of goitre, HVI1, HVI2, BSAV and BMIV all showed high agreement with TVOL, while the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of WHVI was relatively low for children aged 8 (AUC = 0·8993) and 9 (AUC = 0·8866) years. Most differences of TVOL between light and heavy weight, short and tall height children can be eliminated by BSAV. BSAV was the best corrected method in this research. Reference values were established for corrected TVOL in Chinese children aged 8–10 years by sex.
The policy of Universal Salt Iodisation (USI) could reduce population’s thyroid volume (TVOL) in iodine deficiency areas. Conversely, the improved growth and developmental status of children might increase the TVOL accordingly. Whether the decreased TVOL by USI conceals the increase effect of height and weight on TVOL is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between height, weight, iodine supplementation and TVOL. Five national Iodine Deficiency Disorder surveys were matched into four pairs according to the purpose of analysis. County-level data of both detected by paired surveys were incorporated; 1:1 random pairing method was used to match counties or individuals. The difference of TVOL between different height, weight, different iodine supplementation measures groups and the association between TVOL and them were studied. The mean height and weight of children aged 8–10 years increased from 129·9 cm and 26·9 kg in 2002 to 136·2 cm and 32·1 kg in 2019, while the median TVOL decreased from 3·10 ml to 2·61 ml. Iodine supplementation measures can affect TVOL; after excluding iodine effects, the median TVOL was increased with the height and weight. On the other side, after excluding the influence of height and weight, the median TVOL remained decreased. Only age, weight and salt iodine were significantly associated with TVOL in multiple linear models. Development of height and weight in children is the evidence of improved nutrition. The decreased TVOL caused by iodised salt measures conceals the increase effect of height and weight on TVOL. Age, weight and salt iodine affect TVOL significantly.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.