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Nitrogen implantation is used to retard gate oxide growth thereby making it particularly usefulfor dual- VT and System On A chip technologies. This paper discusses the diffusion behavior and the concomitant defect evolution at high doses of implanted nitrogen in silicon. This paper shows that as the nitrogen implant dose is increased, the extent of nitrogen diffusion reduces. This paper also reports based onTEM studies, that upon annealing at 750°C, 5 × 10014 N2+/cm2, 40 keV implant produces Type I extended defects. However, 2 × 1015 N2+/cm2, 40 keV implant, produces a continuous amorphous layer to a depth ofabout 800 to 900 Å from the surface. In addition, upon annealing at 750°C, the 2 × 1015 N2+/cm2, 40 keV implant produces Type V or solid solubility defects in addition to End of Range or Type II defects.
The effect of nitrogen implants on boron transient enhanced diffusion was studied for nitrogen-only, boron-only, and boron plus nitrogen implants. A boron buried layer was used as a detector for interstitial supersaturation in the samples. Boron dose ranged from 1×1014 to 1×1015 cm−2 and N2+ dose from 5×1013 and 5×1014 cm−2. The energies were chosen such that the location of the nitrogen and boron peaks matched. After the implants, RTA and low temperature furnace anneals were carried out. The diffusivity enhancements were extracted from the buried layer profiles by simulation. Nitrogen-only implants were found to cause significant enhanced diffusion on the buried boron layer. For lower doses, the enhancement of the nitrogen implant is about half as that of boron whereas the enhancements are equal at higher doses. Nitrogen coimplant with boron increases the transient enhanced diffusion of boron at low boron doses, which implies that nitrogen does not act as a strong sink for excess interstitials unlike carbon. At high boron doses, nitrogen co-implant does not significantly change boron diffusion. Sheet resistance measurements indicate that low nitrogen doses do not affect the activation of boron whereas high nitrogen doses either reduce the activation of boron or the mobility of the holes.
Nitrogen implantation can be used to control gate oxide thicknesses [1,2]. This study aims at studying the fundamental behavior of nitrogen diffusion in silicon. Nitrogen at sub-amorphizing doses has been implanted as N2+ at 40 keV and 200 keV into Czochralski silicon wafers. Furnace anneals have been performed at a range of temperatures from 650°C through 1050°C. The resulting annealed profiles show anomalous diffusion behavior. For the 40 keV implants, nitrogen diffuses very rapidly and segregates at the silicon/ silicon-oxide interface. Modeling of this behavior is based on the theory that the diffusion is limited by the time to create a mobile nitrogen interstitial.
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