A representative sample of 855 Hong-Kong Chinese children aged 36–48 months were assessed using the BSQ and the PBCL. Good reliability for both instruments were found. For the BSQ and PBCL, 12.75% and 27.5% were above the cut-off points of 10+ and 12 + respectively and 5.9% were above both cut-off points. In the second stage, 234 subjects were recruited by stratified random sampling according to the results of the screening stage. A clinician interviewed the parent, child and teacher before making a diagnosis. The prevalence of behaviour disorder was: nil, 53.7%; dubious, 23.1 %; mild, 18.0%; moderate, 4.5%; and severe, 0.7%. There were significantly more boys in the categories mild, moderate and severe.