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This chapter presents a framework for considering contextual, intraindividual, and interindividual processes that may predict variation in children’s tendency to seek revenge. Drawing on research with adults and aggression to inform hypotheses, the chapter outlines and reviews theory and evidence about the social-cognitive and affective predictors of revenge-seeking. Additionally, individual differences in information processing patterns, emotional regulation, and physiological responses that are likely to increase or decrease desires for revenge are discussed. Contextual and situational features that may affect individuals’ likelihood of seeking revenge or retaliating for harm are also briefly explored.
Case identification is an ongoing issue for the COVID-19 epidemic, in particular for outpatient care where physicians must decide which patients to prioritise for further testing. This paper reports tools to classify patients based on symptom profiles based on 236 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positive cases and 564 controls, accounting for the time course of illness using generalised multivariate logistic regression. Significant symptoms included abdominal pain, cough, diarrhoea, fever, headache, muscle ache, runny nose, sore throat, temperature between 37.5 and 37.9 °C and temperature above 38 °C, but their importance varied by day of illness at assessment. With a high percentile threshold for specificity at 0.95, the baseline model had reasonable sensitivity at 0.67. To further evaluate accuracy of model predictions, leave-one-out cross-validation confirmed high classification accuracy with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.92. For the baseline model, sensitivity decreased to 0.56. External validation datasets reported similar result. Our study provides a tool to discern COVID-19 patients from controls using symptoms and day from illness onset with good predictive performance. It could be considered as a framework to complement laboratory testing in order to differentiate COVID-19 from other patients presenting with acute symptoms in outpatient care.
A lot has happened to the UK Constitution in the last seven years. We've witnessed the UK's exit from the EU, further devolution to Scotland and Wales, a number of prominent cases by the Supreme Court, two early parliamentary general elections, major governmental defeats and two Prime Ministerial resignations. Alison Young has built on the text of Colin Turpin and Adam Tomkins' earlier edition, keeping their unique historical and contextual approach, whilst bringing the material up to date with more contemporary examples, including references to Brexit, the recent prorogation and Brexit case law, and the Covid-19 pandemic. The book continues to include substantial extracts from parliamentary and other political sources as well as from legislation and case law. It also provides a full yet accessible account of the British constitution at the culmination of a series of dramatic events, on the threshold of possible further constitutional reform.
The chapter analyses the different sources of UK constitutional law: statutes, case law, prerogative powers and constitutional conventions, in addition to rules and practices in the UK Parliament (including standing orders, the Cabinet Manual and the Ministerial Code. It provides a detailed account of constitutional statutes and developing ideas of the common law constitution, in addition to providing an up-to-date account of prerogative powers in the light of the recent Supreme Court case on prorogation.
This chapter explores the role and powers of the UK Parliament, setting out the powers of the House of Commons and the House of Lords . It also provides an account of the extent to which Parliament can hold the government to account, focusing on recent examples of ministerial and prime ministerial resignations. It also provides an account of the impact of Brexit on the Westminster Parliament, including the enactment of private members' bills, votes of no confidence, governmental defeats and the reinterpretation of standing orders. It evaluates how far these changes stemmed from the combination of Brexit and a minority government.
The chapter introduces the UK constitution, focusing on its non-codified nature and the way in which the UK, unlike other constitutions, has no developed understanding of the state. It explains both the strengths and weaknesses of a fluid, evolving constitution. It also sets the stage for the theme of the impact of Brexit on the UK constitution, which runs through the book as a whole. It also explains and evaluates recent constitutional change - from the Coalition Government onwards - and sets out possible future constitutional change.
This chapter sets out and explains the key principles and values of the UK constitution - and of constitutionalism more generally. It explains parliamentary sovereignty, the rule of law, democracy and the separation of powers. It provides contemporary examples of the application of these values and principles , including the impact of referendums and of the two groundbreaking Miller decisions - known as the Brexit and the prorogation cases.
This chapter provides an up-to-date account of the evolving history of devolution in the UK. In particular, it explains the impact of the independence referendum in Scotland, the move to devomax and the possibility of a second independence referendum. It provides an up-to-date account of further devolution to Wales. It also provides an account of the failure of devolution in Northern Ireland from 2017-20, looking at the governance of Northern Ireland by civil servants. It also provides a new analysis of the impact of devolution on parliamentary sovereignty and the impact of Brexit on devolution.