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The Cook Ice Cap (CIC) on the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Islands recently experienced extremely negative surface mass balance. Further deglaciation could have important impacts on endemic and invasive fauna and flora. To put this exceptional glacier evolution into a multi-centennial-scale context, we refined the evolution of the CIC over the last millennium, investigated the associated climate conditions and explored its potential evolution by 2100 ce. A glaciological model, constrained by cosmic ray exposure dating of moraines, historical documents and recent direct mass balance observations, was used to simulate the ice-cap extents during different phases of advance and retreat between the last millennium and 2100 ce. Cosmogenic dating suggests glacial advance around the early Little Ice Age (LIA), consistent with findings from other sub-Antarctic studies, and the rather cold and humid conditions brought about by the negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). This study contributes to our currently limited understanding of palaeoclimate for the early LIA in the southern Indian Ocean. Glaciological modelling and observations confirm the recent decrease in CIC extent linked to the intensification of the SAM. Although affected by large uncertainties, future simulations suggest a complete disappearance of CIC by the end of the century.
Sex-related differences in psychopathology are known phenomena, with externalizing and internalizing symptoms typically more common in boys and girls, respectively. However, the neural correlates of these sex-by-psychopathology interactions are underinvestigated, particularly in adolescence.
Participants were 14 years of age and part of the IMAGEN study, a large (N = 1526) community-based sample. To test for sex-by-psychopathology interactions in structural grey matter volume (GMV), we used whole-brain, voxel-wise neuroimaging analyses based on robust non-parametric methods. Psychopathological symptom data were derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).
We found a sex-by-hyperactivity/inattention interaction in four brain clusters: right temporoparietal-opercular region (p < 0.01, Cohen's d = −0.24), bilateral anterior and mid-cingulum (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.18), right cerebellum and fusiform (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.20) and left frontal superior and middle gyri (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.26). Higher symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention were associated with lower GMV in all four brain clusters in boys, and with higher GMV in the temporoparietal-opercular and cerebellar-fusiform clusters in girls.
Using a large, sex-balanced and community-based sample, our study lends support to the idea that externalizing symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention may be associated with different neural structures in male and female adolescents. The brain regions we report have been associated with a myriad of important cognitive functions, in particular, attention, cognitive and motor control, and timing, that are potentially relevant to understand the behavioural manifestations of hyperactive and inattentive symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering sex in our efforts to uncover mechanisms underlying psychopathology during adolescence.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Use of this novel murine model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and C. difficile infection (CDI) will aid in developing new clinical approaches to predict, diagnose, and treat CDI in the IBD population. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: IBD is associated with intestinal inflammation and alterations of the gut microbiota, both of which can diminish colonization resistance to C. difficile. Here, we sought to determine if IBD is sufficient to render mice susceptible to C. difficile colonization and infection in the absence of other perturbations, such as antibiotic treatment. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: C57BL/6 IL-10-/- mice were colonized with Helicobacter hepaticus to trigger colonic inflammation akin to human IBD. Control mice, not colonized with H. hepaticus, were pretreated with the antibiotic cefoperazone to render the gut microbiota susceptible to CDI. Mice were then gavaged with spores of the toxigenic C. difficile strain VPI 10463 and monitored for C. difficile colonization and disease. The fecal microbiota at the time of C. difficile exposure was profiled by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analyzed using mothur. Statistical analyses were performed using R. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mice with IBD harbored significantly distinct intestinal microbial communities compared to non-IBD controls at the time of C. difficile spore exposure (14 days post-IBD trigger). Mice with IBD were susceptible to persistent C. difficile colonization, while genetically identical non-IBD controls were resistant to C. difficile colonization. Concomitant IBD and CDI was associated with significantly worse clinical and intestinal disease than unaccompanied IBD. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Patients with IBD who develop concurrent CDI experience increased morbidity and mortality. These studies in a novel mouse model of IBD and CDI emphasize the dual importance of host responses and alterations of the gut microbiota in susceptibility to C. difficile colonization and infection in the setting of IBD.
Flow in thin films is highly dependent on the boundary conditions. Here, we study the capillary levelling of thin bilayer films composed of two immiscible liquids. Specifically, a stepped polymer layer is placed atop another, flat polymer layer. The Laplace pressure gradient resulting from the curvature of the step induces flow in both layers, which dissipates the excess capillary energy stored in the stepped interface. The effect of different viscosity ratios between the bottom and top layers is investigated. We invoke a long-wave expansion of the low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics to model the energy dissipation due to the coupled viscous flows in the two layers. Good agreement is found between the experiments and the model. Analysis of the latter further reveals an interesting double cross-over in time, from Poiseuille flow, to plug flow and finally to Couette flow. The cross-over time scales depend on the viscosity ratio between the two liquids, allowing for the dissipation mechanisms to be selected and finely tuned by varying this ratio.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplementary materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
The utility of informant-based measures of cognitive decline to accurately describe objective cognitive performance in Parkinson’s disease (PD) without dementia is uncertain. Due to the clinical relevance of this information, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between informant-based reports of patient cognitive decline via the Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) and objective cognition in non-demented PD controlling for cognitive status (i.e., mild cognitive impairment; PD-MCI and normal cognition; PD-NC).
One-hundred and thirty-nine non-demented PD participants (PD-MCI n = 38; PD-NC n = 101) were administered measures of language, executive function, attention, learning, delayed recall, visuospatial function, mood, and motor function. Each participant identified an informant to complete the IQCODE and a mood questionnaire.
Greater levels of informant-based responses of patient cognitive decline on the IQCODE were significantly associated with worse objective performance on measures of global cognition, attention, learning, delayed recall, and executive function in the overall sample, above and beyond covariates and cognitive status. However, the IQCODE was not significantly associated with language or visuospatial function.
Results indicate that informant responses, as measured by the IQCODE, may provide adequate information on a wide range of cognitive abilities in non-demented PD, including those with MCI and normal cognition. Findings have important clinical implications for the utility of the IQCODE in the identification of PD patients in need of further evaluation, monitoring, and treatment.
Debris-covered glaciers constitute a large part of the world's cryosphere. However, little is known about their long-term response to multi-millennial climate variability, in particular in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we provide first insights into the response of a debris-covered glacier to multi-millennial climate variability in the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Archipelago, which can be compared to that of recently investigated debris-free glaciers. We focus on the Gentil Glacier and present 13 new 36Cl cosmic-ray exposure ages from moraine boulders. The Gentil Glacier experienced at least two glacial advances: the first one during the Late Glacial (19.0–11.6 ka) at ~14.3 ka and the second one during the Late Holocene at ~2.6 ka. Both debris-covered and debris-free glaciers advanced broadly synchronously during the Late Glacial, most probably during the Antarctic Cold Reversal event (14.5–12.9 ka). This suggests that both glacier types at Kerguelen were sensitive to abrupt temperature changes recorded in Antarctic ice cores, associated with increased moisture. However, during the Late Holocene, the advance at ~2.6 ka was not observed in other glaciers and seems to be an original feature of the debris-covered Gentil Glacier, related to either distinct dynamics or to distinct sensitivity to precipitation changes.
Although bilinguals benefit from semantic context while perceiving speech-in-noise in their native language (L1), the extent to which bilinguals benefit from semantic context in their second language (L2) is unclear. Here, 57 highly proficient English–French/French–English bilinguals, who varied in L2 age of acquisition, performed a speech-perception-in-noise task in both languages while event-related brain potentials were recorded. Participants listened to and repeated the final word of sentences high or low in semantic constraint, in quiet and with a multi-talker babble mask. Overall, our findings indicate that bilinguals do benefit from semantic context while perceiving speech-in-noise in both their languages. Simultaneous bilinguals showed evidence of processing semantic context similarly to monolinguals. Early sequential bilinguals recruited additional neural resources, suggesting more effective use of semantic context in L2, compared to late bilinguals. Semantic context use was not associated with bilingual language experience or working memory.
To understand hospital policies and practices as the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) conducted a survey through the SHEA Research Network (SRN). The survey assessed policies and practices around the optimization of personal protection equipment (PPE), testing, healthcare personnel policies, visitors of COVID-19 patients in relation to procedures, and types of patients. Overall, 69 individual healthcare facilities responded in the United States and internationally, for a 73% response rate.
Because of their structural versatility, fast redox reactivity, high storage capacity, sustainability, and environmental friendliness, soluble organic redox molecules have emerged as materials that have potential for use in energy-storage systems. Considering these advantages, this paper reviews recent progress in implementing such materials in aqueous soluble organic redox flow batteries and organic alkali metal/air batteries. We identify and discuss major challenges associated with molecular structures, cell configurations, and electrochemical parameters. Hopefully, we provide a general guidance for the future development of soluble organic redox materials for emerging energy-storage devices used in the electricity grid.
Raw milk cheeses are commonly consumed in France and are also a common source of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Both an FBO surveillance system and a laboratory-based surveillance system aim to detect Salmonella outbreaks. In early August 2018, five familial FBOs due to Salmonella spp. were reported to a regional health authority. Investigation identified common exposure to a raw goats' milk cheese, from which Salmonella spp. were also isolated, leading to an international product recall. Three weeks later, on 22 August, a national increase in Salmonella Newport ST118 was detected through laboratory surveillance. Concomitantly isolates from the earlier familial clusters were confirmed as S. Newport ST118. Interviews with a selection of the laboratory-identified cases revealed exposure to the same cheese, including exposure to batches not included in the previous recall, leading to an expansion of the recall. The outbreak affected 153 cases, including six cases in Scotland. S. Newport was detected in the cheese and in the milk of one of the producer's goats. The difference in the two alerts generated by this outbreak highlight the timeliness of the FBO system and the precision of the laboratory-based surveillance system. It is also a reminder of the risks associated with raw milk cheeses.
We aimed to assess the incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in people with schizophrenia, to explore clinical associates with OSA and how well OSA screening tools perform in this population.
All patients registered in a community outpatient Clozapine clinic, between January 2014 and March 2016, were consecutively approached to participate. Participants were screened for OSA using at home multichannel polysomnography (PSG) and were diagnosed with OSA if the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was >10 events/hr. Univariate comparison of participants to determine whether AHI > 10 events/hr was associated with demographic factors, anthropometric measures and psychiatric symptoms and cognition was performed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the commonly used sleep symptoms scales and OSA screening tools were also determined.
Thirty participants were recruited, 24 men and 6 women. Mean age was 38.8 (range: 25–60), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 (range 19.9–62.1). The proportion of participants with OSA (AHI > 10 events/hr) was 40%, 18 (60%) had no OSA, 4 (13%) had mild OSA (AHI 10.1–20), zero participants had moderate OSA (AHI 20.1–30) and 8 (27%) had severe OSA (AHI > 30). Diagnosis of OSA was significantly associated with increased weight, BMI, neck circumference and systolic blood pressure. Diagnosis of OSA was not significantly associated with Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, Montgomery Asperger’s Depression Rating Scale, Personal and Social Performance scale or Brief Assessment of Cognition for Schizophrenia scores. All OSA screening tools demonstrated poor sensitivity and specificity for a diagnosis of OSA.
OSA was highly prevalent in this cohort of people with schizophrenia and was associated with traditional anthropometric OSA risk factors.
The aim of the current study was to explore the changing interrelationships among clinical variables through the stages of schizophrenia in order to assemble a comprehensive and meaningful disease model.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries participated and included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with schizophrenia. Multiple linear regression analysis and visual inspection of plots were performed.
The results suggest that with progression stages, there are changing correlations among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors at each stage and each factor correlates with all the others in that particular stage, in which this factor is dominant. This internal structure further supports the validity of an already proposed four stages model, with positive symptoms dominating the first stage, excitement/hostility the second, depression the third, and neurocognitive decline the last stage.
The current study investigated the mental organization and functioning in patients with schizophrenia in relation to different stages of illness progression. It revealed two distinct “cores” of schizophrenia, the “Positive” and the “Negative,” while neurocognitive decline escalates during the later stages. Future research should focus on the therapeutic implications of such a model. Stopping the progress of the illness could demand to stop the succession of stages. This could be achieved not only by both halting the triggering effect of positive and negative symptoms, but also by stopping the sensitization effect on the neural pathways responsible for the development of hostility, excitement, anxiety, and depression as well as the deleterious effect on neural networks responsible for neurocognition.
For vascular trauma purposes the abdomen is divided into four retroperitoneal anatomical areas:
Zone 1: The midline retroperitoneum from the aortic hiatus to the sacral promontory is broken into supramesocolic and inframesocolic areas. The supramesocolic area contains the suprarenal aorta and its major branches (celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries), the supramesocolic segment of the inferior vena cava with its major branches, and the superior mesenteric vein. The inframesocolic area contains the infrarenal aorta and infrarenal inferior vena cava.
Zone 2 (left and right): This is the paired right and left region lateral of Zone 1 containing the kidneys and renal vessels.
Zone 3: The pelvic retroperitoneum, which contains the iliac vessels.
The abdominal aorta originates between the two crura of the diaphragm at the level of T12–L1 and bifurcates into the common iliac arteries at the level of L4–5. The umbilicus is an approximate external landmark for the aortic bifurcation. The first large branch is the celiac trunk, followed by the superior mesenteric artery 1–2 cm inferiorly, and both course anteriorly and inferiorly. The renal arteries originate 1–2 cm below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery at the level of L2 and course laterally. Finally, the inferior mesenteric artery originates 2–5 cm above the aortic bifurcation on the left anterior aspect of the aorta.
Celiac artery: The main trunk originates on the anterior surface of the aorta at the level of T12–L1. It is 1–2 cm long and divides into three branches at the upper border of the pancreas—the common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic arteries. The celiac is encased in extensive fibrous, ganglionic, and lymphatic tissues, which makes surgical dissection of the celiac artery difficult. In 10–20% of patients, the left gastric artery gives off a replaced left hepatic artery that courses through the gastrohepatic omentum and can be injured while mobilizing the left lobe of the liver or lesser curve of the stomach.
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA): The SMA originates from the anterior surface of the aorta at the level of L1, 1–2 cm below the celiac artery. It courses posterior to the neck of the pancreas and anterior to the third part of the duodenum, beyond which it enters the root of the mesentery. SMA branches include the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, the middle colic artery, an arterial arcade with 12–18 intestinal branches, the right colic artery, and the ileocolic artery. In 10–20% of patients, the SMA gives off a replaced right hepatic artery, which courses posterior to the head of the pancreas and runs posteriorly and to the right of the portal vein.
Renal arteries: The right renal artery emerges at a slightly higher level and is longer than the left and courses posteriorly to the inferior vena cava. Approximately 30% of patients have more than one renal artery, usually an accessory artery supplying the lower pole of the kidney. Both renal veins lie anteriorly of their accompanying renal arteries. The left renal vein is significantly longer than the right and courses anteriorly to the aorta. The left renal vein drains the left gonadal vein inferiorly, the left adrenal vein superiorly, and the renolumbar vein posteriorly. The right gonadal vein drains directly into the IVC.
Inferior mesenteric artery (IMA): The IMA provides blood supply to the left colon, sigmoid, and the rectum. It communicates with the SMA through the marginal artery of Drummond and arc of Riolan.
Research on psychotic illness is loosening emphasis on diagnostic stringency in favour of including a more dimensionally based conceptualization of psychopathology and pathobiology. However, to clarify these notions requires investigation of the full scope of psychotic diagnoses.
The Cavan–Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study ascertained cases of first episode psychosis across all 12 DSM-IV psychotic diagnoses via all routes to care: public, private or forensic; home-based, outpatient or inpatient. There was no arbitrary upper age cut-off and minimal impact of factors associated with variations in social milieu, ethnicity or urbanicity. Cases were evaluated epidemiologically and assessed for psychopathology, neuropsychology, neurology, antecedent factors, insight and quality of life.
Among 432 cases, the annual incidence of any DSM-IV psychotic diagnosis was 34.1/100 000 of population and encompassed functional psychotic diagnoses, substance-induced psychopathology and psychopathology due to general medical conditions, through to psychotic illness that defied contemporary diagnostic algorithms. These 12 DSM-IV diagnostic categories, including psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, showed clinical profiles that were consistently more similar than distinct.
There are considerable similarities and overlaps across a broad range of diagnostic categories in the absence of robust discontinuities between them. Thus, psychotic illness may be of such continuity that it cannot be fully captured by operational diagnostic algorithms that, at least in part, assume discontinuities. This may reflect the impact of diverse factors each of which acts on one or more overlapping components of a common, dysfunctional neuronal network implicated in the pathobiology of psychotic illness.
The Gaia satellite recently released parallax measurements for nearly 400,000 white dwarf stars, allowing for precise measurements of their physical parameters. By combining these parallaxes with Pan-STARRS and CFIS-u photometry, we measured the effective temperatures and surface gravities for all white dwarfs within 100 pc and identified a sample of ZZ Ceti white dwarf candidates within the instability strip. We report the results of a photometric follow-up, currently under way, aimed at identifying new ZZ Ceti stars among this sample using the PESTO camera attached to the 1.6-m telescope at the Mont Mégantic Observatory. Our goal is to verify that ZZ Ceti stars occupy a region in the logg-Teff plane where no nonvariable stars are found, supporting the idea that ZZ Ceti pulsators represent a phase through which all hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs must evolve.