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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The association between depression after myocardial infarction and increased risk of mortality and cardiac morbidity may be due to cardiac disease severity.
To combine original data from studies on the association between post-infarction depression and prognosis into one database, and to investigate to what extent such depression predicts prognosis independently of disease severity.
An individual patient data meta-analysis of studies was conducted using multilevel, multivariable Cox regression analyses.
Sixteen studies participated, creating a database of 10 175 post-infarction cases. Hazard ratios for post-infarction depression were 1.32 (95% CI 1.26–1.38, P<0.001) for all-cause mortality and 1.19 (95% CI 1.14–1.24, P<0.001) for cardiovascular events. Hazard ratios adjusted for disease severity were attenuated by 28% and 25% respectively.
The association between depression following myocardial infarction and prognosis is attenuated after adjustment for cardiac disease severity. Still, depression remains independently associated with prognosis, with a 22% increased risk of all-cause mortality and a 13% increased risk of cardiovascular events per standard deviation in depression z-score.
We investigate first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in an anemone active region (AR) - coronal hole (CH) complex using an abundance map derived from Hinode/EIS spectra. The detailed, spatially resolved abundance map has a large field of view covering 359″ × 485″. Plasma with high FIP bias, or coronal abundances, is concentrated at the footpoints of the AR loops whereas the surrounding CH has a low FIP bias, ~1, i.e. photospheric abundances. A channel of low FIP bias is located along the AR's main polarity inversion line containing a filament where ongoing flux cancellation is observed, indicating a bald patch magnetic topology characteristic of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.
Cleaning is an effective way to lower the bacterial burden (BB) on surfaces and minimize the infection risk to patients. However, BB can quickly return. Copper, when used to surface hospital bed rails, was found to consistently limit surface BB before and after cleaning through its continuous antimicrobial activity.
Colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is a risk factor for subsequent VRE bloodstream infection (BSI); however, risk factors for BSI among colonized patients have not been adequately described. We sought to determine the proportion of VRE-colonized patients who subsequently develop VRE BSI and to identify risk factors for VRE BSI among these patients.
Records of 768 patients colonized with VRE from January 2002 through June 2005 were reviewed. The proportion of patients who developed VRE BSI was calculated, and the characteristics of these patients were compared, in a 2 : 1 ratio, with those of patients who did not develop VRE BSI. To identify risk factors for VRE BSI and for death, we used univariate logistic regression analysis and then multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we compared the isolate recovered when the patient was colonized and the isolate recovered when the patient developed VRE BSI.
Of the 768 patients colonized with VRE, 31 (4.0%) developed VRE BSI. Multivariate analysis identified the following idependent risk factors for developing VRE BSI: infection of an additional body site other than blood (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.9; P = .04), admission to the hospital from a long-term care facility (aOR, 12.6; P = .04), and receipt of vancomycin (aOR, 10.6; P < .001). The independent risk factors for death among patients colonized with VRE were immunosuppression (aOR, 12.9; P = .001 ) and VRE BSI (aOR, 9.1; P = .002). Of the 31 patients who developed VRE BSI, 23 (74%) had a pair of isolates representing VRE colonization and VRE BSI. For 19 (83%) of these 23 patients, the isolate representing BSI was genetically related to the isolate representing VRE colonization: 12 pairs of isolates (52%) had identical banding patterns, 5 had closely related patterns, and 2 had possibly related patterns.
Of the 768 patients colonized with VRE, 31 (4.0%) usually developed VRE BSI due to a related strain. Independent risk factors for BSI among colonized patients were admission from a long-term care facility, infection of an additional body site, and exposure to vancomycin. Independent risk factors for death were immunosuppression and VRE BSI.
We present results of spatially-resolved photoluminescence and Raman measurements on a 200 μm thick GaN layer grown on sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Our microphotoluminescence measurements reveal that the peak position of the excitonic and donoracceptor-pair transitions strongly depends on the distance to the substrate interface. We observed a strong blue shift near the interface and discuss the influence of strain, which we quantified by micro-Raman experiments.
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