The authors describe a rare case of plexiform neurofibroma of the cervical portion of the vagus nerve, and discuss its aetiopathogenesis, clinical, histological and therapeutic features, emphasizing the difference from other benign tumours of the vagus nerve.
The clinical characteristics of the mass, ultrasound tomography, CT scanning and digital subtraction angiography were useful in defining its extension and relationships with the surrounding structures.
Surgery is the treatment of choice. After mentioning the most commonly employed surgical approaches, they emphasize the advantages of the lateral-cervical approach which allows a wide exposure of the possible sites of origin of the tumour and its complete removal.
Finally they stress the need of an accurate histological and immunohistochemical examination in order to differentiate neurofibromas from neurilemmomas.