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Methane produced from formate is one of the important methanogensis pathways in the rumen. However, quantitative information of CH4 production from formate has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to characterize the conversion rate (CR) of formic acid into CH4 and CO2 by rumen microorganisms. Ground lucerne hay was incubated with buffered ruminal fluid for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Before the incubation, 13C-labeled H13COOH was also supplied into the incubation bottle at a dose of 0, 1.5, 2.2 or 2.9 mg/g of DM substrate. There were no interactions (P>0.05) between dose and incubation time for all variables evaluated. When expressed as an absolute amount (ml in gas sample) or a relative CR (%), both 13CH4 and 13CO2 production quadratically increased (P<0.01) with the addition of H13COOH. The total 13C (13CH4 and 13CO2) CR was also quadratically increased (P<0.01) when H13COOH was added. Moreover, formate addition linearly decreased (P<0.031) the concentrations of NH3-N, total and individual volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), and quadratically decreased (P<0.014) the populations of protozoa, total methanogens, Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosarcina barkeri. In summary, formate affects ruminal fermentation and methanogenesis, as well as the rumen microbiome, in particular microorganisms which are directly or indirectly involved in ruminal methanogenesis. This study provides quantitative verification for the rapid dissimilation of formate into CH4 and CO2 by rumen microorganisms.
We present polarimetric observations of the 4 ground-state transitions of OH, toward a sample of maser-emitting planetary nebulae (PNe) using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This sample includes confirmed OH-emitting PNe, confirmed and candidate H2O-maser-emitting PNe. Polarimetric observations provide information related to the magnetic field of these sources. Maser-emitting PNe are very young PNe and magnetic fields are a key ingredient in the early evolution and shaping process of PNe. Our preliminary results suggest that magnetic field strengths may change very rapidly in young PNe.
We have detected maser emission from the 36.2 GHz (4−1 → 30E) methanol transition towards NGC 4945. This emission has been observed in two separate epochs and is approximately five orders of magnitude more luminous than typical emission from this transition within our Galaxy. NGC 4945 is only the fourth extragalactic source observed hosting class I methanol maser emission. Extragalactic class I methanol masers do not appear to be simply highly-luminous variants of their galactic counterparts and instead appear to trace large-scale regions where low-velocity shocks are present in molecular gas.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Two in situ experimental methods are presented in which dust particles are used to determine the extent of the sheath and gain information about the time-averaged electric force profile within a radio frequency (RF) plasma sheath. These methods are advantageous because they are not only simple and quick to carry out, but they also can be performed using standard dusty plasma experimental equipment. In the first method, dust particles are tracked as they fall through the plasma towards the lower electrode. These trajectories are then used to determine the electric force on the particle as a function of height as well as the extent of the sheath. In the second method, dust particle levitation height is measured across a wide range of RF voltages. Similarities were observed between the two experiments, but in order to understand the underlying physics behind these observations, the same conditions were replicated using a self-consistent fluid model. Through comparison of the fluid model and experimental results, it is shown that the particles exhibiting a levitation height that is independent of RF voltage indicate the sheath edge – the boundary between the quasineutral bulk plasma and the sheath. Therefore, both of these simple and inexpensive, yet effective, methods can be applied across a wide range of experimental parameters in any ground-based RF plasma chamber to gain useful information regarding the sheath, which is needed for interpretation of dusty plasma experiments.
We present a detailed depth-sensitive study of the evolution in correlated electron behavior from the surface of the prototypical correlated oxide, SrxCa1-xVO3, to its bulk. Photoemission measurements of varying surface sensitivity are employed to directly compare both the spectral weight and energetics of the correlated electron features, and resonant soft x-ray emission spectroscopy is used as a bulk-sensitive reference. The surface component, which still contributes significantly to photoemission at 2.2 keV, is characterized by a transfer of spectral weight into the incoherent lower Hubbard band and the corresponding shift of these states towards lower binding energy.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight (BW) and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated the morphological and molecular basis of this phenomenon. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880) were pre-weighed and randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 incubation treatment groups: (1) dark condition (control group), and (2) monochromatic green light group (560 nm). The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps and were equalized at the intensity of 15 lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day 1 until hatching. After hatch, 120 male 1-day-old chicks from each group were housed under incandescent white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. No effects of light stimuli during embryogenesis on hatching time, hatchability, hatching weight and bird mortality during the feeding trial period were observed in the present study. Compared with the dark condition, the BW, pectoral muscle weight and myofiber cross-sectional areas were significantly greater on 7-day-old chicks incubated under green light. Green light also increased the satellite cell mitotic activity of pectoral muscle on 1- and 3-day-old birds. In addition, green light upregulated MyoD, myogenin and myostatin mRNA expression in late embryos and/ or newly hatched chicks. These data suggest that stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation promote muscle growth by enhancing proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in late embryonic and newly hatched stages. Higher expression of myostatin may ultimately help prevent excessive proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in birds incubated under green light.
To investigate the missing compact star of Supernova 1987A, we analyzed the cooling and heating processes of a possible compact star based on the upper limit of observational X-ray luminosity. From the cooling process, we found that a solid quark-cluster star (SQS), having a stiffer equation of state than that of a conventional liquid quark star, has a heat capacity much smaller than a neutron star. The SQS can cool down quickly, naturally explaining the non-detection of a point source in X-ray wavelengths. On the other hand, we considered the heating processes due to magnetospheric activity and possible accretion and obtained some constraints on the parameters of a possible pulsar. Therefore, we concluded that a SQS can explain the observational limit in a confident parameter space. As a possible central compact object, the pulsar parameter constraints can be tested for SN1987A with advanced, future facilities.
The β-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) is a G-protein coupled receptor involved in regulating lipolysis, as part of homeostatic regulation. In this study, South African Mutton Merino and Shanxi Dam Line were used to study the distribution and quantification of ADRB3 in adipose (subcutaneous, omental, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and perirenal fat) and non-adipose (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) tissues of sheep. The protein was determined by immunohistochemical technique and by mRNA abundance via real-time polymerase chain reaction. ADRB3 was detected in all studied tissues with abundance in adipose tissues higher than in non-adipose tissues (P < 0.001). For adipose tissues, greater expression was found in deep deposits such as great omental and retroperitoneal fat than in subcutaneous fat (P < 0.05). Significant differences (P < 0.05) both for mRNA and for protein expression also existed between the two sheep flocks. These findings are consistent with the known function of ADRB3 in mediating lipolysis and homeostasis in adipose tissues.
We report an extremely rare case of malignant triton tumour.
Case report and review of the world literature concerning malignant triton tumour and heredity.
We present the case of a 47-year-old woman who underwent a lateral rhinotomy surgical resection of a malignant triton tumour of the right paranasal sinuses, a rare location for this tumour. Thereafter, she received adjuvant radiotherapy. The prognosis for this group of tumours is poor. Radical surgical excision of the tumour followed by radiation therapy must be the treatment of choice.
To our knowledge, this is a rare report in the world literature of malignant triton tumour. This case indicates that malignant triton tumour of the paranasal sinuses is a rare disease which otolaryngologists should be aware of, and one which should be included in the differential diagnosis of malignant lesions involving the sinonasal tract.