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Increasing literature suggests the need to explore PTSD and post-traumatic stress symptoms among parents and caregivers of children with acute and chronic illnesses but scant data are available on epilepsy.
The aim of this study was to estimate full and partial PTSD rates among parents of children with epilepsy according to DSM-5 criteria. Further, aim of this study was to examine eventual gender differences between mothers and fathers.
One hundred and thirty-eight parents, 91 mothers (65.9%) and 47 (34.1%) fathers, of children diagnosed with epilepsy were interviewed using the SCID-5.
Full and partial DSM-5 PTSD were reported by 10.4% and 37.3% of patients, respectively. Significant gender differences, with the mother more affected, emerged in the rates of partial A PTSD rates (P = 0.048) and in the endorsement rates of criterion B (intrusion symptoms) (P = 0.047), criterion D (negative alterations in cognitions and mood) (P = 0.010) and criterion E (alterations in arousal and reactivity) (P < 0.001) too.
This is the first study to identify post-traumatic symptoms in caregivers of pediatric patients with epilepsy with the use of current diagnostic criteria and the relevance of the results suggests the need for further studies on this risk population.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Data that assess the co-morbidity between post-traumatic stress symptoms and autism spectrum are scarce. Nevertheless, some authors suggested that subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), due to their difficulty in understanding the codes of communication, empathy, expression, are lower resilience to traumas.
The aim of this study was to explore in a sample of parents of children with epilepsy, the presence of correlations between the symptoms of post-traumatic stress and adult autism subthreshold spectrum.
Seventy-seven parents completed the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self-Report (TALS-SR), specifically modified for one's son epileptic disease, and 72 parents completed the AdAS Spectrum (Adult Autism subthreshold Spectrum).
Eight subjects (11.1%) presented a total score ≥45 at the AdAS Spectrum, corresponding to the satisfaction of a symptomatic ASD criteria and indicative of the Adult Autism Spectrum subthreshold. More specifically, a total score ≥45 was found in 7 (15.9%) of mothers and 1 (3.6%) of the fathers, with no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.139).
Noteworthy correlations between TALS and AdAS, emerged only in the subgroup of the fathers. In particular, a relevant number of moderate to good correlations emerged between the Domain II (reactions to the events of loss) of the TALS-SR and the AdAS Domain III (non verbal communication), Domain VI (restricted interests and ruminations) and total score.
Results indicate that this peculiar psychopathological model could lead to increased vulnerability to effects of the trauma, in particular in male.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The purposes of the study were (i) to describe the abundance and epidemiology of Legionellaceae in the man-made environment in a northern Italian area, (ii) to assess the concordance between pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and automated ribotyping (AR) techniques for genotyping L. pneumophila and (iii) to investigate the correlation between serogrouping and genotyping data. Water was sampled from reservoirs in 12 buildings across an area of 80-km radius. Despite the water temperature always being maintained above 55 °C, all of the buildings sampled were contaminated with Legionellaceae on at least one occasion and 63 L. pneumophila isolates representing nine different serogroups were collected. The two DNA methods revealed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, even though identical L. pneumophila clones were recovered at different sites. The AR technique provided a fairly reliable approximation of PFGE results (73% concordance), however there was poor correlation between serogrouping and genotyping data as identical DNA fingerprints were shared by isolates of different serogroups.
We discuss the expected polarization of the Galactic foregrounds at the SPOrt experiment frequencies 22-90 GHz. We also consider the problem of foreground separation and perform an analysis to estimate their impact on the detection of a cosmological signal.
The goal of the Sky Polarisation Observatory (SPOrt) Program is the measurement of the sky linearly polarised emission in the 22-90 GHz frequency range from the International Space Station (2003-2004). The instrument configuration together with most relevant ground support activities are presented. In particular, the development of hardware solutions for high sensitive polarimetric measurements has been addressed by the SPOrt team to match the experiment requirements.
We investigated whether there are differences between the natural history of B and C chronic hepatitis in a southern Italian population, and whether the chronic viral hepatitis population was modified by the introduction of the anti-HCV test in 1989. We examined clinical charts of 1120 patients consecutively admitted to our division from January 1979 to December 1998 with the histological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis (304 from 1979 to 1988; 816 from 1989 to 1998). We found significant differences only in age at diagnosis (higher in the second decade, P=0·001), and in aetiology (HBV decreased in the second decade, P<0·0001). We were able to follow up 449 patients for 2–20 years (311 with HCV and 138 with HBV infection), and found that chronic HCV evolved to cirrhosis more frequently than did chronic HBV; but in both types time to development of cirrhosis and the incidence of death were similar. Our data confirm that a higher onset age of HBV and of HCV is frequently observed in those subjects who have a faster disease progression.
Soft X-ray contact microscopy (SXCM) experiments have been performed
using the Prague Asterix Iodine Laser System (PALS). Laser wavelength
and pulse duration were λ = 1.314 μm and τ (FWHM) = 450 ps,
respectively. Pulsed X rays were generated using teflon, gold, and
molybdenum targets with laser intensities I ≥
1014 W/cm2. Experiments have been performed
on the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans. Images were recorded
on PMMA photo resists and analyzed using an atomic force microscope
operating in contact mode. Our preliminary results indicate the
suitability of the SXCM for multicellular specimens.
Fission fragment damage was introduced into aligned sintered samples of various superconductors containing small additions of UO2 by irradiation with thermal neutrons. Samples of aligned, sintered YBa2Cu3Ox, powdered Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Oy, powdered Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Oz, and epitaxial films of YBa2Cu3Ox on (100)SrTiO3 were used. Magnetic hysteresis, with the critical state model, was used to evaluate changes in the intragranular critical current. In the case of the Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Oz powders an increase in intragranular Jc at 0.8 T of greater than 70 times was produced by the radiation. The epitaxial film showed no change in Jc on irradiation. This behavior upon irradiation is attributed to the pinning caused by damage produced by the fission products of uranium.
Investigations of Atmospheric Aerosol Systems (let us abbreviate AAS) have now spread to many laboratories around the world, mainly because of the important role they assume in the air pollution problem.
In most cases, the studies on AAS attempt to evaluate the so-called “size-distribution function”, through which the general behavior of such a system is commonly described.
The St. Louis aerosol was sampled during the period 16-22 August 1973 simultaneously at two locations using cascade impactors for sequential 12-hour samples. The six particle size fractions of each sampling were individually analyzed using PIXE for elements from S to Br and beyond and for heavy elements including Pb which permitted time variations of concentrations and particle size distributions to be followed and related to meteorological changes during the sampling period. In addition, the data were compared with average levels of the elements in coastal north Florida and maritime Bermuda as well as at a third St. Louis site. From this it appeared that some of the concentrations in St. Louis were at natural levels whereas others appeared to be higher and linked to air pollution sources. These relationships and others in this study may lead to criteria for distinguishing between pollutants and natural background in urban aerosols.
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