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This chapter examines repatriation and indigenous meanings, values, and uses of their material cultural heritage. What is the legacy of conquest that postcolonial scholarship and advocacy are challenging, and how are they doing so? How and why are the perspectives, means, challenges, and accomplishments regarding indigenous populations reclaiming ownership of cultural heritage different around the world?
Glufosinate resistance in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) was recently detected in three accessions from Arkansas, USA. Amaranthus palmeri is the first and only broadleaf weed species resistant to this herbicide, and the resistance mechanism is still unclear. A previous study characterized the glufosinate resistance level in the accessions from Arkansas. A highly glufosinate-resistant accession was further used to investigate the mechanism conferring glufosinate resistance in A. palmeri. Experiments were designed to sequence the herbicide target enzyme cytosolic and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase isoforms (GS1 and GS2, respectively) and quantify copy number and expression. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of glufosinate using the 14C-labeled herbicide were also evaluated in the resistant and susceptible accessions. The glufosinate-resistant accession had an increase in copy number and expression of GS2 compared with susceptible plants. All accessions showed only one GS1 copy and no differences in expression. No mutations were identified in GS1 or GS2. Absorption (54% to 60%) and metabolism (13% to 21%) were not different between the glufosinate-resistant and glufosinate-susceptible accessions. Most residues of glufosinate (94% to 98%) were present in the treated leaf. Glufosinate translocation to tissues above the treated leaf and in the roots was not different among accessions. However, glufosinate translocation to tissues below the treated leaf (not including roots) was greater in the resistant A. palmeri (2%) compared with the susceptible (less than 1%) accessions. The findings of this paper strongly indicate that gene amplification and increased expression of the chloroplastic glutamine synthetase enzyme are the mechanisms conferring glufosinate resistance in the A. palmeri accession investigated. Thus far, no additional resistance mechanism was observed, but further investigations are ongoing.
Background: Immunoglobulin supplies are limited; we aimed to determine if the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with difficulty accessing immunoglobulin treatment for patients diagnosed with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP). Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted with CIDP patients (n=16, 68.75% female, mean age 60.38 ± 11.32) recruited from three Montreal tertiary care institutions. Patients completed a questionnaire inquiring about changes in their immunoglobulin treatment during the pandemic and about their quality of life. We used weighted chi-squared statistical tests and Cramer’s V correlation ratios to measure associations with treatment change. Results: Eighteen months after the pandemic started, 25% of our population were receiving immunoglobulin treatment at a different frequency, 6.3% were receiving a different dose, 12.5% were receiving a different dose and frequency, and 6.3% were receiving a different treatment. Reasons associated with treatment change were worsening of neurological condition (18.8%; Cramer’s V=0.480; p-value=0.055), improvement of neurological condition (25%; Cramer’s V=0.577; p-value=0.021) and reduced availability of treatment (6.3%; Cramer’s V=0.258; p-value=0.302). There were no significant correlations between lower quality of life (p-value=0.323) or lower Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale score (p-value=0.574) and treatment change. Conclusions: Difficulty accessing immunoglobulin treatment was not significantly associated with treatment change for CIDP patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Grief research in family carers of people with dementia has increased. We aimed to report the prevalence of pre-death and post-death grief and to synthesize associated factors and the relationship between pre-death factors and post-death grief and services used to manage grief.
(Prospero protocol: CRD42020165071) We systematically reviewed literature from PsycINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and ASSIA until April 2020. Effectiveness of intervention data and studies not written in English were excluded; qualitative studies were additionally excluded during study selection. Study quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Evidence was narratively summarized.
Family non-paid carers of somebody with any dementia type.
Validated measures of pre-death and/or post-death grief.
We included quantitative data from 55 studies (44 rated as high quality). Most included solely spouse or adult child carers. Forty-one studies reported pre-death grief, 12 post-death grief, and 6 service use; eight were longitudinal. 17% met the Prolonged Grief Disorder criteria pre-death (n = 1) and 6–26% (n = 4) of participants met the Complicated Grief criteria post-death. Being a spouse, less educated, caring for somebody with advanced dementia, and greater burden and depression were associated with higher pre-death grief. Lower education level and depression were predictive of higher post-death grief. Pre-death factors found to influence post-death grief were grief and depression. Limited service use evidence was reported.
Awareness of characteristics which increase the likelihood of higher grief can help identify those in need of support. Future research should focus on what supports or services are beneficial to grief experiences.
To investigate associations between multimodal analgesia and post-operative pain among patients undergoing transoral robotic surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Records of patients who underwent surgery from 5 September 2012 to 30 November 2016 were abstracted. Associations were assessed using multivariable analysis.
A total of 216 patients (mean age of 59.1 years, 89.4 per cent male) underwent transoral robotic surgery (92.6 per cent were human papilloma virus positive, 87.5 per cent had stage T1–T2 tumours, and 82.9 per cent had stage N0–N1 nodes). Gabapentin (n = 86) was not associated with a reduction in severe pain. Ibuprofen (n = 72) was administered less often in patients with severe pain. Gabapentin was not associated with increased post-operative sedation (p = 0.624) and ibuprofen was not associated with increased bleeding (p = 0.221). Post-operative opioid usage was not associated with surgical duration, pharyngotomy, bilateral neck dissections, tumour stage, tumour size, subsite or gabapentin.
Scheduled low-dose gabapentin was not associated with improved pain control or increased respiratory depression. Ibuprofen was not associated with an increased risk of bleeding and may be under-utilised.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common cause of chronic liver disease, worldwide. The molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex, involving numerous signalling molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs). Dysregulation of miRNA expression is associated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although miRNAs are also critical to the cellular response to vitamin D, mediating regulation of the vitamin D receptor and vitamin D’s anti-cancer effects, the role of vitamin-D-regulated miRNAs in NAFLD pathogenesis has been relatively unexplored. Therefore, this review aims to critically assess the evidence for a potential subset of miRNAs that are both dysregulated in NAFLD and modulated by vitamin D. Comprehensive review of eighty-nine human studies identified twenty-five miRNAs found dysregulated in more than one NAFLD study. In contrast, only seventeen studies, including a protocol for a trial in NAFLD, had examined miRNAs in relation to vitamin D status, response to supplementation, or vitamin D in the context of the liver. This paper summarises these data and reviews the biological roles of six miRNAs (miR-21, miR-30, miR-34, miR-122, miR-146, miR-200) found dysregulated in multiple independent NAFLD studies. While modulation of miRNAs by vitamin D has been understudied, integration of the data suggests seven vitamin-D-modulated miRNAs (miR-27, miR-125, miR-155, miR-192, miR-223, miR-375, miR-378) potentially relevant to NAFLD pathogenesis. Our summary tables provide a significant resource to underpin future hypothesis-driven research, and we conclude that the measurement of serum and hepatic miRNAs in response to vitamin D supplementation in larger trials is warranted.
Patients with CHD can be exposed to high levels of cumulative ionising radiation. Utilisation of electroanatomic mapping during catheter ablation leads to reduced radiation exposure in the general population but has not been well studied in patients with CHD. This study evaluated the radiation sparing benefit of using three-dimensional mapping in patients with CHD.
Data were retrospectively collected from the Catheter Ablation with Reduction or Elimination of Fluoroscopy multi-institutional registry. Patients with CHD were selected. Those with previous ablations, concurrent diagnostic or interventional catheterisation and unknown arrhythmogenic foci were excluded. The control cohort was matched for operating physician, arrhythmia mechanism, arrhythmia location, weight and age. The procedure time, rate of fluoroscopy use, fluoroscopy time, procedural success, complications, and distribution of procedures per year were compared between the two groups.
Fifty-six patients with congenital heart disease and 56 matched patients without CHD were included. The mean total procedure time was significantly higher in patients with CHD (212.6 versus 169.5 minutes, p = 0.003). Their median total fluoroscopy time was 4.4 minutes (compared to 1.8 minutes), and their rate of fluoroscopy use was 23% (compared to 13%). The acute success and minor complication rates were similar and no major complications occurred.
With the use of electroanatomic mapping during catheter ablation, fluoroscopy use can be reduced in patients with CHD. The majority of patients with CHD received zero fluoroscopy.
Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical treatments applied to Palmer amaranth seeds or gynoecious plants that retain seeds to determine seed germination and quality. Treatments applied to physiologically mature Palmer amaranth seed included acifluorfen, dicamba, ethephon, flumioxazin, fomesafen, halosulfuron, linuron, metribuzin, oryzalin, pendimethalin, pyroxasulfone, S-metolachlor, saflufenacil, trifluralin, and 2,4-D plus crop oil concentrate applied at 1× and 2× the suggested use rates from the manufacturer. Germination was reduced by 20% when 2,4-D was used, 15% when dicamba was used, and 13% when halosulfuron and pyroxasulfone were used. Use of dicamba, ethephon, halosulfuron, oryzalin, trifluralin, and 2,4-D resulted in decreased seedling length by an average of at least 50%. Due to the observed effect of dicamba, ethephon, halosulfuron, oryzalin, trifluralin, and 2,4-D, these treatments were applied to gynoecious Palmer amaranth inflorescence at the 2× registered application rates to evaluate their effects on progeny seed. Dicamba use resulted in a 24% decrease in seed germination, whereas all other treatment results were similar to those of the control. Crush tests showed that seed viability was greater than 95%, thus dicamba did not have a strong effect on seed viability. No treatments applied to Palmer amaranth inflorescence affected average seedling length; therefore, chemical treatments did not affect the quality of seeds that germinated.
We examined the association between potato consumption in two different age periods during adolescence and risk of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction in White and Black girls. We used data from the biracial prospective National Growth and Health Study. Average potato consumption was derived from multiple 3-d food records in two age periods, 9–11 and 9–17 years, and included white and sweet potatoes from all sources. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate OR for becoming overweight, developing prehypertension, elevated TAG levels or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) at 18–20 years of age according to the category of daily potato intake. We also stratified by cooking method (fried/non-fried) and race. ANCOVA was also used to estimate adjusted mean levels of BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, log-transformed TAG, the TAG:HDL ratio and fasting glucose levels associated with potato intake category. Higher potato consumption was associated with higher fruit and non-starchy vegetable intakes and higher Healthy Eating Index scores in Black girls. There were no statistically significant associations overall between moderate or higher (v. lower) intakes of potatoes and risks of overweight, prehypertension, elevated fasting TAG, high TAG:HDL ratio or IFG. Also, no adverse associations were found between fried or non-fried potato intake and cardiometabolic outcomes. Potato consumption has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. This study adds evidence that potato consumption among healthy girls during the critical period of adolescence was not associated with cardiometabolic risk.
Estimated levels of microbial burden on hospital environmental surfaces vary substantially among published studies. Cultures obtained during a cluster-controlled crossover trial of a quaternary ammonium (Quat) disinfectant versus an improved hydrogen peroxide (IHP) disinfectant provided additional data on the amount of microbial burden on selected surfaces.
RODAC plates containing D/E neutralizing agar were used to sample a convenience sample of 5–8 high-touch surfaces in patient rooms on 2 medical wards, an intensive care unit, and a step-down unit at a large hospital. Before routine daily cleaning, samples were obtained in varying rooms over an 11-month period. RODAC plates (1 per surface sampled) were incubated for 72 hours, and aerobic colony counts per plate (ACCs) were determined. Statistical analysis was used to determine the potential impact on ACCs of study period, cleaning compliance rate, disinfectant used, ward, surface sampled, and isolation room status.
Overall, 590 cultures were obtained on Quat wards and 589 on IHP wards. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that mean ACCs differed significantly by site (P < .001), type of ward (P < .001), isolation room status (P = .039), and study period (P = .036). The highest mean ACCs per RODAC plate were on toilet seats (112.8), bedside rails (92.0), and bathroom grab bars (79.5).
The combination of factors analyzed revealed that estimating microbial burden is complex and is affected by multiple factors. Additional studies should evaluate individual sites, ward types, cleaning and disinfection practices, and isolation room status.
Recovery from trauma can be naturally occurring or facilitated through psychotherapy. Few brief measures exist to provide clinicians with dispositional, empirical assessments of patient’s sentiments during psychotherapy.
This manuscript presents the Dispositional Recovery and Dysfunction Inventory (DRDI), a measure created to assist clinicians in evaluating patient’s treatment progress during psychotherapy, as well as evaluate its factor structure, reliability estimates, measurement invariance, and correlates.
The DRDI was created based on feedback from experts with experience treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and was structurally validated in two distinct populations. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted in sample 1 consisting of (n=401) university students. Confirmatory factor analysis, measure validity and structure validation were then conducted in sample 2 (n=249) composed of 49% individuals with clinically significant PTSD symptoms.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the DRDI was best represented by a two-factor correlated traits model representing sentiments related to dispositional recovery and dysfunctional cognitions. The recovery subscale exhibited relationships with convergent measures including authenticity and psychological hardiness (r values of .30 to .60). The dysfunctional beliefs subscale exhibited relationships with convergent measures: PTSD, depression, suicidality and stress (r values of .55 to 80). Measurement invariance across gender and PTSD status was observed.
Initial findings indicate that the DRDI has the potential to be a useful tool to assess individuals’ beliefs about their propensity to recover from and thrive through adversity.
Students exhibiting behaviours of concern are at increased risk of poor outcomes during their school years. The implementation of school-wide positive behavioural interventions and supports (SWPBIS) has repeatedly been shown to be an effective, evidence-based approach that supports teachers to select and adopt effective practices to meet the social and behavioural needs of all learners. Implementation of SWPBIS within Australian schools is increasing. Although there is considerable evidence supporting the effectiveness and efficacy of SWPBIS as a means to improve the behavioural outcomes of all students, these positive outcomes largely depend on the actions of teachers. To this point, very limited research has been published that explores the experiences of teachers working in Australian schools currently implementing SWPBIS. The current study asked 206 Victorian teachers working in schools implementing SWPBIS two open-ended questions about the factors that they believed were facilitators or barriers to their ability to improve the behavioural outcomes of their students. The most commonly reported facilitators were availability of time, consistency of staff implementation of behaviour support, and adequate training. The most frequently identified barriers were a lack of time and inconsistent implementation. The practical and research implications of these preliminary qualitative findings are discussed.
The study aims to investigate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, comorbid psychopathology and behaviour problems in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Parents of 147 children and adolescents with ASD aged 6–18 years completed the Conners 3 Parent-Short Form, Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, Behavior Problems Inventory-Short Form and Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbid for Children.
Fifty-six per cent of children and adolescents had a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, yet over 70% presented with clinically significant ADHD symptoms. Forty per cent of participants received a diagnosis of ADHD before ASD and 25.6% received a diagnosis of ASD first. Relationships were found between ADHD symptoms and comorbid psychopathology, GI symptoms, and behaviour problems.
The outcomes suggest that ADHD is being underestimated as a comorbid disorder of ASD. This may have implications on treatment and interventions for children and adolescents who have a diagnosis of both ASD and ADHD.
Field studies were conducted to evaluate linuron for POST control of Palmer amaranth in sweetpotato to minimize reliance on protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides. Treatments were arranged in a two by four factorial in which the first factor consisted of two rates of linuron (420 and 700 g ai ha−1), and the second factor consisted of linuron applied alone or in combinations of linuron plus a nonionic surfactant (NIS; 0.5% vol/vol), linuron plus S-metolachlor (800 g ai ha−1), or linuron plus NIS plus S-metolachlor. In addition, S-metolachlor alone and nontreated weedy and weed-free checks were included for comparison. Treatments were applied to ‘Covington’ sweetpotato 8 d after transplanting (DAP). S-metolachlor alone provided poor Palmer amaranth control because emergence had occurred at applications. All treatments that included linuron resulted in at least 98% and 91% Palmer amaranth control 1 and 2 wk after treatment (WAT), respectively. Including NIS with linuron did not increase Palmer amaranth control compared to linuron alone, but it resulted in greater sweetpotato injury and subsequently decreased total sweetpotato yield by 25%. Including S-metolachlor with linuron resulted in the greatest Palmer amaranth control 4 WAT, but increased crop foliar injury to 36% 1 WAT compared to 17% foliar injury from linuron alone. Marketable and total sweetpotato yields were similar between linuron alone and linuron plus S-metolachlor or S-metolachlor plus NIS treatments, though all treatments resulted in at least 39% less total yield than the weed-free check resulting from herbicide injury and/or Palmer amaranth competition. Because of the excellent POST Palmer amaranth control from linuron 1 WAT, a system that includes linuron applied 7 DAP followed by S-metolachlor applied 14 DAP could help to extend residual Palmer amaranth control further into the critical period of weed control while minimizing sweetpotato injury.
Catheter ablation is a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in children. Current improvements in technology have allowed progressive reduction in radiation exposure associated with the procedure. To assess the impact of three-dimensional mapping, we compared acute procedural results collected from the Catheter Ablation with Reduction or Elimination of Fluoroscopy registry to published results from the Prospective Assessment after Pediatric Cardiac Ablation study.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria from the Prospective Assessment after Pediatric Cardiac Ablation study were used as guidelines to select patient data from the Catheter Ablation with Reduction or Elimination of Fluoroscopy registry to compare acute procedural outcomes between cohorts. Outcomes assessed include procedural and fluoroscopy exposure times, success rates of procedure, and complications.
In 786 ablation procedures, targeting 498 accessory pathways and 288 atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia substrates, average procedural time (156.5 versus 206.7 minutes, p < 0.01), and fluoroscopy time (1.2 versus 38.3 minutes, p < 0.01) were significantly shorter in the study group. Success rates for the various substrates were similar except for manifest accessory pathways which had a significantly higher success rate in the study group (96.4% versus 93.0%, p < 0.01). Major complication rates were significantly lower in the study group (0.3% versus 1.6%, p < 0.01).
In a large, multicentre study, three-dimensional systems show favourable improvements in clinical outcomes in children undergoing catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia compared to the traditional fluoroscopic approach. Further improvements are anticipated as technology advances.
While experiences of later-life homelessness are known to vary, classification of shelter, housing and service models that meet the diverse needs of older people with experiences of homelessness (OPEH) are limited. To address this gap, a scoping review was conducted of shelter/housing options, supports and interventions for OPEH. Fourteen databases were searched for English-language peer-reviewed and/or empirical literature published between 1999 and 2019, resulting in the inclusion of 22 sources. Through a collaborative, iterative process of reading, discussing and coding, data extracted from the studies were organised into six models: (1) long-term care, (2) permanent supportive housing (PSH), including PSH delivered through Housing First, (3) supported housing, (4) transitional housing, (5) emergency shelter settings with health and social supports, and (6) case management and outreach. Programme descriptions and OPEH outcomes are described and contribute to our understanding that multiple shelter/housing options are needed to support diverse OPEH. The categorised models are considered alongside existing ‘ageing in place’ research, which largely focuses on older adults who are housed. Through extending discussions of ageing in the ‘right’ place to diverse OPEH, additional considerations are offered. Future research should explore distinct sub-populations of OPEH and how individual-level supports for ageing in place must attend to mezzo- and macro-level systems and policies.
Field studies were conducted in 2019 and 2020 to compare the effects of shade cloth light interception and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) competition on ‘Covington’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Treatments consisted of a seven by two factorial arrangement, in which the first factor included shade cloth with an average measured light interception of 41%, 59%, 76%, and 94% and A. palmeri thinned to 0.6 or 3.1 plants m−2 or a nontreated weed-free check; and the second factor included shade cloth or A. palmeri removal timing at 6 or 10 wk after planting (WAP). Amaranthus palmeri light interception peaked around 710 to 840 growing degree days (base 10 C) (6 to 7 WAP) with a maximum light interception of 67% and 84% for the 0.6 and 3.1 plants m−2 densities, respectively. Increasing shade cloth light interception by 1% linearly increased yield loss by 1% for No. 1, jumbo, and total yield. Yield loss increased by 36%, 23%, and 35% as shade cloth removal was delayed from 6 to 10 WAP for No. 1, jumbo, and total yield, respectively. F-tests comparing reduced versus full models of yield loss provided no evidence that the presence of yield loss from A. palmeri light interception caused yield loss different than that explained by the shade cloth at similar light-interception levels. Results indicate that shade cloth structures could be used to simulate Covington sweetpotato yield loss from A. palmeri competition, and light interception could be used as a predictor for expected yield loss from A. palmeri competition.
Many newborns with pulmonary atresia/intact ventricular septum require intervention to establish pulmonary flow and sufficient cardiac output. The resulting haemodynamic changes are not well characterised and may have unintended consequences.
This is a 30-year (1988–2018) retrospective study of patients with pulmonary atresia intact ventricular septum.
Eighty-nine patients were included, and median follow-up was 8 years. Fifty-five per cent had coronary sinusoids and 27% had right ventricular-dependent coronary circulation. Most patients were managed with surgical aortopulmonary or modified Blalock–Taussig shunt (73%), and 12 patients underwent balloon atrial septostomy before surgical intervention. The remaining patients (27%) underwent only transcatheter interventions; 7 required an atrial septostomy and 17 required ductal stentings. All-cause mortality was 10%, most deaths (89%) occurred before 18 months of age. Of these early deaths, 87% required a balloon atrial septostomy and 85% had right ventricular-dependent coronary sinusoids. Eighteen-month mortality was significantly higher for patients who required a balloon atrial septostomy compared to those who did not (36% versus 1.4% p < 0.0001).
Patients with pulmonary atresia/intact ventricular septum who require balloon atrial septostomy in the newborn period have significantly higher 18-month mortality. Quantifying the mortality difference may help guide prognostication and expectation setting. Infants who had septostomy and a surgical shunt in the newborn period fared better than those who only underwent septostomy (even when accompanied by ductal stenting). For infants with right ventricular-dependent circulation, atrial septostomy should only be performed on an urgent or emergent basis and these patients should be considered for early surgical intervention and neonatal transplant.
Cognitive tasks delivered during ecological momentary assessment (EMA) may elucidate the short-term dynamics and contextual influences on cognition and judgements of performance. This paper provides initial validation of a smartphone task of facial emotion recognition in serious mental illness.
A total of 86 participants with psychotic disorders (non-affective and affective psychosis), aged 19–65, were administered in-lab ‘gold standard’ affect recognition, neurocognition, and symptom assessments. They subsequently completed 10 days of the mobile facial emotion recognition task, assessing both accuracy and self-assessed performance, along with concurrent EMA of psychotic symptoms and mood. Validation focused on task adherence and predictors of adherence, gold standard convergent validity, and symptom and diagnostic group variation.
The mean rate of adherence to the task was 79%; no demographic or clinical variables predicted adherence. Convergent validity was observed with in-lab measures of facial emotion recognition, and no practice effects were observed on the mobile facial emotion recognition task. EMA reports of more severe voices, sadness, and paranoia were associated with worse performance, whereas mood more strongly associated with self-assessed performance.
The mobile facial emotion recognition task was tolerated and demonstrated convergent validity with in-lab measures of the same construct. Social cognitive performance, and biased judgements previously shown to predict function, can be evaluated in real-time in naturalistic environments.
The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) has defined translation as the process of turning observations into interventions that are adopted, sustained, and improve health. Translation must attend to research and community systems and context at multiple levels, and to key stakeholders. Dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences are informed by an understanding of the critical role of people and systems in disseminating, adopting, and sustaining innovations within real-world settings. Thus, the D&I sciences provides a set of principles that can guide the translational work of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs from basic research to public health. In this special communication, our cross-domain working group of the CTSA consortium, comprised of experts in methods and processes, workforce development, evaluation, stakeholder engagement, and D&I sciences, share a vision of how CTSAs can enhance translation across the translational spectrum through the integration of D&I sciences into the critical areas of methods and processes, workforce development, and evaluation. We propose a set of recommendations for NCATS national and local leaders that are intended to move D&I sciences out of a position of unfamiliarity and ancillary value and into the core identity of who CTSAs are, how they think, and what they do, to advance translation and health.