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Self-similarity of wall-attached coherent structures in a turbulent channel at $Re_\tau =543$ is explored by means of resolvent analysis. In this modelling framework, coherent structures are understood to arise as a response of the linearised mean-flow operator to generalised frequency-dependent Reynolds stresses, considered to act as an endogenous forcing. We assess the self-similarity of both the wall-attached flow structures and the associated forcing. The former are educed from direct numerical simulation data by finding the flow field correlated with the wall shear, whereas the latter is identified using a frequency space version of extended proper orthogonal decomposition (Borée, Exp. Fluids, vol. 35, issue 2, 2003, pp. 188–192). The forcing structures identified are compared to those obtained using the resolvent-based estimation introduced by Towne et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 883, 2020, A17). The analysis reveals self-similarity of both wall-attached structures – in quantitative agreement with Townsend's hypothesis of self-similar attached eddies – and the underlying forcing, at least in certain components.
Linearisation of the Navier–Stokes equations about the mean of a turbulent flow forms the foundation of popular models for energy amplification and coherent structures, including resolvent analysis. While the Navier–Stokes equations can be equivalently written using many different sets of dependent variables, we show that the properties of the linear operator obtained via linearisation about the mean depend on the variables in which the equations are written prior to linearisation, and can be modified under nonlinear transformation of variables. For example, we show that using primitive and conservative variables leads to differences in the singular values and modes of the resolvent operator for turbulent jets, and that the differences become more severe as variable-density effects increase. This lack of uniqueness of mean-flow-based linear analysis provides new opportunities for optimising models by specific choice of variables while also highlighting the importance of carefully accounting for the nonlinear terms that act as a forcing on the resolvent operator.
A growing body of scientific literature suggests that HIV seroprevalence among people with serious mental illness has increased substantially in recent years. In the Italian context, specialized services (mental health or infectious disease) more and more are requested for combined management of dual diagnosis. Consequently health care workers (HCW) have to face difficulties due to new situations of care. To fill these gaps, the core purpose of this study is to analyze HCW experiences from their own perspectives in order to understand their difficulties and create good practices in health care.
A qualitative study was conducted in public services Mental Health and HIV/AIDS workers, in Lazio region, Italy.
HCW were asked in anonymous way about their experiences. The interviews, consisting of one open_question, were audio taped and integrally transcribed and the texts were analysed through software T-Lab (cluster and correspondence analysis).
91 HCW were interviewed. We identified, trough cluster analysis, six cultural models about dual diagnosis: Disease as personal experience, Fear of contagion, Training as support to work, Service as integration function, Families as object of the intervention, Disease as scientific knowledge
In conclusion, this study examines for the first time the constructions of dual diagnosis in the Italian context through text and language of HCW. It reveal that we need further elaboration because of sociocultural meanings of dual diagnosis are not fixed but are ongoingly co-constructed by the various participants of health context.
A growing body of scientific literature emphasizes a strong linkage between HIV/Aids and serious mental illness. In the Italian context, specialized services for combined management of dual diagnosis are increasingly requested, and healthcare professionals (HPWs) have to face up the difficulty emerging by this new situation. To bridge these gaps, the present study aimed at studying the representations of dual diagnosis, analyzing HPWs’ experiences from their own perspectives, in order to understand their difficulty and create future good practices in healthcare services.
A quali-quantitative study was conducted with a multidisciplinary sample of professionals (N=91), drawn by HIV/Aids and Mental Health sites. Due to the exploratory nature of the research, data were collected from semi-structured interviews: HPWs were asked about their work experiences with HIV/Aids and Mental Illness. The interviews were fully audio-taped and verbatim transcribed. A computer-aided lexical correspondence analysis was conducted by a dedicated text-analysis software.
Data analysis showed out two main factorial dimensions: the first regarding the representation of the “Management of dual diagnosis within Health Services”, and the second one referring to the “categorization of HIV/Aids-Mental Illness co-morbidity”. Furthermore, four different Representational Conceptions were highlighted, corresponding to as many different ways HPWs use to represent/depict the aims of Health Service in relation to HIV/Aids-Mental Illness co-morbidity.
This study reveals that socio-cultural meanings of dual diagnosis are not fixed; rather, they are ongoing co-constructed within the activities carried out by the HPWs involved in their specific health contexts in the exercise of their profession.
A link between anxiety and disfunctions of the Hypotalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been widely reported in both normal and pathological anxiety, but research findings are controversial.
To explore gender differences in the relationships between cortisol and neurosteroids and subthreshold anxiety dimensions.
To investigate the possible correlations between serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels, or DHEA-S/cortisol ratio, and the subthreshold panic dimensions in a sample of healthy subjects.
Forty-two Italian civilians, without current or lifetime psychiatry disorders, were recruited and assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I/P) and a specific questionnaire, the so-called Panic Agoraphobic Spectrum-Self Report lifetime version (PAS-SR), for assessing subthreshold panic-agoraphobic dimensions.
The results showed the presence of significant negative correlations between the cortisol levels and the total scores of the PAS-SR and of the following domains: separation sensitivity, panic like symptoms and medication/substance sensitivity. The PAS-SR total and the panic-like symptoms domain scores were related positively to the DHEAS/cortisol ratio. When the sample was distinguished in women and men, it turned out that this correlations were present only in women.
This findings would indicate that cortisol levels are related to subthreshold panic-agoraphobic symptoms, with a gender specificity. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate those subthreshold conditions in order to indentify possible gender differences that may account for phenotypes at higher risk for psychiatric disorders.
Recent studies indicate that Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder (ASAD) may represent a discrete diagnostic entity worthy of attention. Adults with ASAD report estreme anxiety and fear about separations from major attachment figures. These symptoms lead to severe impairment in social relationships and are not better accounted for by the presence of agoraphobia. In a previous study, we found platelet expression reduction of the 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) in patients with panic disorder with associated ASAD.
To explore whether separation anxiety might be a factor differentiating TSPO expression in a sample of patients with major depression.
The equilibrium binding parameters of the specific TSPO ligand [3H]PK 11195 were estimated on platelet membranes from 40 adult outpatients with MDD, with or without separation anxiety symptoms, and 20 healthy controls. Patients were assessed by SCID-I, HAM-D, the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS) and the Adult Separation Anxiety Self-report Checklist (ASA-27).
A significant reduction of platelet TSPO density mean value was found in depressed patients with associated ASAD, while no significant differences were found between depressed patients without ASAD and the control group. Individual TSPO density values were significantly and negatively correlated with both SCI-SAS-A and ASA-27 total scores, but not with HAM-D total score or HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor score.
Reduction of platelet TSPO density in our sample of patients with depression was specifically related to the presence of ASAD. These data suggest that TSPO expression evaluation is a useful biological marker of ASAD.
After the last damaging earthquake in 2012, an anti-seismic reinforcement project of the cathedral of Modena was designed giving us the opportunity to investigate and date the building materials. Radiocarbon (14C), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and thermoluminescence (TL) dating techniques were performed on the vaults with the aim to (1) clarify the construction timing, (2) define the history of the restorations, and (3) explore the possible correlation of the main restoration works to the earthquake chronology deduced from the historic catalog. Preliminary results show that medieval older bricks were reused for most of the original construction. Only lime and non-gypsum mortar was used for the original construction in the 15th century and for later repair of damage caused by earthquakes in the 16th and 17th centuries. Gypsum mortar was used for later repair in the 18th century. The results show much stronger damage due to earthquakes than previously thought.
Failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in dairy calves – which is often due to the low amount of colostrum provided within a few hours after birth – remains a crucial issue. Enabling dairy calves to nurse colostrum from their dams could be useful in increasing intake and thus avoiding FTPI, but further potential effects on the health and welfare of both calves and dams should also be considered. In this study, 107 calf-dam pairs from two Italian dairy farms were alternately assigned to one of the following colostrum provision methods (CPMs): ‘hand-fed method’ (HFM) – the calf was separated from the dam immediately after birth and colostrum was provided by nipple-bottle (n = 50); ‘nursing method’ (NM) – the calf nursed colostrum from the dam for the first 12 h of life without farmer assistance (n = 30); and ‘mixed method’ (MM) – the nursing calf received a supplementary colostrum meal by nipple-bottle (n = 27). Serum of calves (1 to 5 days of age) and samples of their first colostrum meal were analysed by electrophoresis to assess immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration. Additionally, behavioural indicators of separation distress (calf and dam vocalisations; calf refusal of the first meal after separation; undesirable dam behaviour at milking) in the following 24 h were recorded as binary variables (Yes/No), and the health status of calves (disease occurrence and mortality) and dams (postpartum disorders and mastitis occurrence) were monitored for the first 3 months of life and 7 days after parturition, respectively. The lowest FTPI occurrence (calf serum Ig concentration <10.0 g/l) was found in the MM (11.1%) and the HFM (22.0%) compared with the NM (60.0%) (P<0.05), and the highest percentage of calves with optimal transfer of passive immunity (serum Ig concentration ≥16.0 g/l) was observed in the MM (55.6%). The lowest calf–dam separation distress was observed in the HFM (P<0.05). The highest calf disease occurrence was recorded in the HFM (64.0%) and the lowest in the NM (33.3%), with an intermediate value for the MM (44.4%) (P<0.05). No effect of the CPM was observed on dam health or calf mortality (P>0.05). The results of this study indicated that providing calves with a supplementary colostrum meal in addition to nursing from the dam (MM) is truly effective in maximizing passive immunity transfer. Anyway, specific strategies should be studied to minimise calf-dam separation distress.