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Identifying youths most at risk to COVID-19-related mental illness is essential for the development of effective targeted interventions.
To compare trajectories of mental health throughout the pandemic in youth with and without prior mental illness and identify those most at risk of COVID-19-related mental illness.
Data were collected from individuals aged 18–26 years (N = 669) from two existing cohorts: IMAGEN, a population-based cohort; and ESTRA/STRATIFY, clinical cohorts of individuals with pre-existing diagnoses of mental disorders. Repeated COVID-19 surveys and standardised mental health assessments were used to compare trajectories of mental health symptoms from before the pandemic through to the second lockdown.
Mental health trajectories differed significantly between cohorts. In the population cohort, depression and eating disorder symptoms increased by 33.9% (95% CI 31.78–36.57) and 15.6% (95% CI 15.39–15.68) during the pandemic, respectively. By contrast, these remained high over time in the clinical cohort. Conversely, trajectories of alcohol misuse were similar in both cohorts, decreasing continuously (a 15.2% decrease) during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic symptom severity predicted the observed mental health trajectories in the population cohort. Surprisingly, being relatively healthy predicted increases in depression and eating disorder symptoms and in body mass index. By contrast, those initially at higher risk for depression or eating disorders reported a lasting decrease.
Healthier young people may be at greater risk of developing depressive or eating disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Targeted mental health interventions considering prior diagnostic risk may be warranted to help young people cope with the challenges of psychosocial stress and reduce the associated healthcare burden.
Patient safety organizations and researchers describe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) as a largely preventable hospital-acquired infection that affects patient safety and quality of care. We provide evidence regarding the consequences of HAP among 2019 Medicare beneficiaries.
Retrospective case–control study.
Calendar year 2019 Medicare beneficiaries with HAP during an initial hospitalization, defined by International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) coding on inpatient claims (n = 2,457). Beneficiaries with HAP were matched using diagnosis-related group (DRG) codes with beneficiaries who did not experience HAP (n = 2,457).
The 2019 calendar year Medicare 5% Standard Analytic Files (SAF), for inpatient, outpatient, physician, and all postacute hospital settings. The case group (HAP) and control group (non-HAP) were matched on disease severity, age, sex, and race and were compared for hospital length of stay, costs, and mortality during the initial hospitalization and across settings for 30, 60, and 90 days after discharge. The 2019 fiscal year MedPAR Claims data were used to determine Medicare costs.
Medicare beneficiaries with HAP were 2.8 times more likely to die within 90 days compared with matched beneficiaries who did not develop HAP. Among those who survived, beneficiaries with HAP spent 6.6 more days in the hospital (69%) and cost the Medicare program an average of $14,487 (24%) more per episode of care across initial inpatient and postdischarge services.
The findings of higher mortality and cost among Medicare beneficiaries who develop HAP suggest that HAP prevention should be prioritized as a patient safety and quality initiative for the Medicare program.
In this paper, we investigate finite solvable tidy groups. We prove that a solvable group with order divisible by at least two primes is tidy if all of its Hall subgroups that are divisible by only two primes are tidy.
Psilocybin Therapy (PT) is being increasingly studied as a psychiatric intervention. Personality relates to mental health and can be used to probe the nature of PT's therapeutic action.
In a phase 2, double-blind, randomized, active comparator controlled trial involving patients with moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder, we compared psilocybin with escitalopram, over a core 6-week trial period. Five-Factor model personality domains, Big Five Aspect Scale Openness aspects, Absorption, and Impulsivity were measured at Baseline, Week 6, and Month 6 follow-up.
PT was associated with decreases in neuroticism (B = −0.63), introversion (B = −0.38), disagreeableness (B = −0.47), impulsivity (B = −0.40), and increases in absorption (B = 0.32), conscientiousness (B = 0.30), and openness (B = 0.23) at week 6, with neuroticism (B = −0.47) and disagreeableness (B = −0.41) remaining decreased at month 6. Escitalopram Treatment (ET) was associated with decreases in neuroticism (B = −0.38), disagreeableness (B = −0.26), impulsivity (B = −0.35), and increases in openness (B = 0.28) at week 6, with neuroticism (B = −0.46) remaining decreased at month 6. No significant between-condition differences were observed.
Personality changes across both conditions were in a direction consistent with improved mental health. With the possible exception of trait absorption, there were no compelling between-condition differences warranting conclusions regarding a selective action of PT (v. ET) on personality; however, post-ET changes in personality were significantly moderated by pre-trial positive expectancy for escitalopram, whereas expectancy did not moderate response to PT.
To examine temporal changes in coverage with a complete primary series of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and staffing shortages among healthcare personnel (HCP) working in nursing homes in the United States before, during, and after the implementation of jurisdiction-based COVID-19 vaccination mandates for HCP.
Sample and setting:
HCP in nursing homes from 15 US jurisdictions.
We analyzed weekly COVID-19 vaccination data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network from June 7, 2021, through January 2, 2022. We assessed 3 periods (preintervention, intervention, and postintervention) based on the announcement of vaccination mandates for HCP in 15 jurisdictions. We used interrupted time-series models to estimate the weekly percentage change in vaccination with complete primary series and the odds of reporting a staffing shortage for each period.
Complete primary series vaccination among HCP increased from 66.7% at baseline to 94.3% at the end of the study period and increased at the fastest rate during the intervention period for 12 of 15 jurisdictions. The odds of reporting a staffing shortage were lowest after the intervention.
These findings demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccination mandates may be an effective strategy for improving HCP vaccination coverage in nursing homes without exacerbating staffing shortages. These data suggest that mandates can be considered to improve COVID-19 coverage among HCP in nursing homes to protect both HCP and vulnerable nursing home residents.
To evaluate the associations of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and obesity indicators among individuals with and without type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes cohort study.
A secondary analysis. The consumption of UPF was assessed using the dietary data collected with the Harvard FFQ, and each food item was categorised according to the NOVA food processing classification. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after a mean of 14·6-year follow-up. Generalised estimating equations stratified by diabetes status were used to assess the associations between UPF intake and obesity indicators over 14 years of follow-up.
A total of 600 adults (256 T1DM and 344 non-diabetic controls) aged 39 ± 9·1 years at baseline and followed up for over 14 years were included.
Participants with T1DM consumed significantly more UPF than non-diabetic controls at baseline: 7·6 ± 3·8 v. 6·6 ± 3·4 servings per day of UPF, respectively (P < 0·01). Participants with T1DM and with the highest UPF intake had the highest weight (βQ4 v. Q1 = 3·07) and BMI (βQ4 v. Q1 = 1·02, all P < 0·05) compared with those with the lowest UPF intake. Similar positive associations were observed in non-diabetic controls.
Individuals with T1DM may consume more UPF than non-diabetic controls. Positive associations between UPF consumption and obesity indicators suggest that limiting UPF can be recommended for obesity prevention and management. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.
Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) colonization screening was initiated across high-risk departments (PICU, NICU, neonatal wards, and hematology departments) in January 2017, and several CR-GNB cohort and patient-placement strategies were introduced throughout the hospital in January 2018. The colonization and infection rates decreased to varying degrees from 2017 to 2021.
Let G be a p-group for some prime p. Recall that the Hughes subgroup of G is the subgroup generated by all of the elements of G with order not equal to p. In this paper, we prove that if the Hughes subgroup of G is cyclic, then G has exponent p or is cyclic or is dihedral. We also prove that if the Hughes subgroup of G is generalised quaternion, then G must be generalised quaternion. With these results in hand, we classify the tidy p-groups.
Blast related characteristics may contribute to the diversity of findings on whether mild traumatic brain injury sustained during war zone deployment has lasting cognitive effects. This study aims to evaluate whether a history of blast exposure at close proximity, defined as exposure within 30 feet, has long-term or lasting influences on cognitive outcomes among current and former military personnel.
One hundred participants were assigned to one of three groups based on a self-report history of blast exposure during combat deployments: 47 close blast, 14 non-close blast, and 39 comparison participants without blast exposure. Working memory, processing speed, verbal learning/memory, and cognitive flexibility were evaluated using standard neuropsychological tests. In addition, assessment of combat exposure and current post-concussive, posttraumatic stress, and depressive symptoms, and headache was performed via self-report measures. Variables that differed between groups were controlled as covariates.
No group differences survived Bonferroni correction for family-wise error rate; the close blast group did not differ from non-close blast and comparison groups on measures of working memory, processing speed, verbal learning/memory, or cognitive flexibility. Controlling for covariates did not alter these results.
No evidence emerged to suggest that a history of close blast exposure was associated with decreased cognitive performance when comparisons were made with the other groups. Limited characterization of blast contexts experienced, self-report of blast distance, and heterogeneity of injury severity within the groups are the main limitations of this study.
Adolescents spend more time on the Internet than adults, making them susceptible to problematic Internet use (PIU). Evidence shows that PIU has a negative impact on self-esteem among adolescents, disturbing the development of emotional regulation, which makes them more likely to develop depressive symptoms subsequently. However, there is lack of literature focusing on the process that self-esteem may mediate the association between PIU and depressive symptoms.
This study aimed to examine the prospective links between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms in adolescence.
A total of 1,736 adolescents completed this longitudinal study. The baseline survey was conducted in 2019, and the follow-up surveys were performed at 1-year and 2-year later. Problematic Internet use, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were measured. A cascade model was used to examine the longitudinal associations between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.
The mean (SD) age of participants was 13.6 (1.5) years at baseline. The final results observed significant within-time associations between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms at each time point. PIU and low level of self-esteem could predict subsequent depressive symptoms among adolescents, and depressive symptoms were also associated with subsequent PIU and self-esteem.
Both problematic Internet use and self-esteem show bidirectional predictions with depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Health-related professionals, schools and families should be aware of the findings of bidirectional associations. Adolescents with problematic Internet use and lower self-esteem should be paid more attention to attenuate the risk of developing depressive symptoms.
Background: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) enhances intraoperative high grade glioma (HGG) tissue visualization. Despite promising randomized clinical trial data suggesting survival benefit for 5-ALA-guided HGG surgery, patient outcome efficacy is not universally accepted. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate whether there is a beneficial effect upon survival and extent of resection from the utilization of 5-ALA in HGG surgery. Literature regarding 5-ALA usage in HGG surgery was reviewed according to PRISMA guidelines. Results: 3,756 published studies were screened, 536 evaluated, and 45 included. Of studies that directly compared the use of 5-ALA to white light (28.9%), 5-ALA lead to a better progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in 88.4 and 67.5% of patients, respectively. 42.2% demonstrated that 5-ALA use was associated with less post-op neurological deficits, whereas 23.3% of studies showed that surgeries using 5-ALA lead to more deficits. 34.5% demonstrated no difference between 5-ALA and without. Conclusions: 5-ALA was found to be associated with a greater extent of resection and longer OS and PFS in HGG surgeries. Postop neurologic deficit rates were inconclusive when comparing 5-ALA groups to white light groups. 5-ALA is a useful surgical adjunct for HGG resection with preserved patient safety.
This paper addresses the potential impact of adverse aircraft-pilot couplings on tiltrotor safety, when a pilot or autopilot attempts to constrain flight dynamics with strong control. The work builds on previously published research on the theory and application of constrained flight to fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft. Tiltrotor aircraft feature characteristics from both types of aircraft and how these determine behaviour in a unique manner is investigated using a FLIGHTLAB simulation model of the XV-15 aircraft. Two different scenarios are explored in detail, using linearised models that reflect the flight-physics of stability for small deviations from trim. First, the control of vertical flight path with longitudinal cyclic pitch and elevator, and the consequences for the stability of the aircraft surge mode and short-period pitch-heave mode. The classical surge-mode instability for flight at speeds below minimum power is shown to apply to the tiltrotor in helicopter mode but alleviated in conversion and airplane modes. The impact on the short–period mode is seen to be a trade-off between the stabilising pitch attitude and destabilising incidence (angle-of-attack) contributions to the flight-path angle. The second example concerns strong control of roll attitude in the presence of adverse aileron-yaw. Here, the yaw-sway motion can be driven unstable, a problem encountered on fixed-wing aircraft with weak weathercock stability, but rare in the rotorcraft world. For both examples, the loss of stability is expressed as the change in sign of effective damping or stiffness stability derivatives. The explanatory theory for these non-oscillatory or low-frequency aircraft-pilot couplings is presented, along with interpretations in terms of handling qualities criteria. The paper also addresses the question of how to translate the findings into a form of aeronautical knowledge useful for the pilot training community.
Background: The goal of the study was to assess responder rates at various times after initiating atogepant treatment. Methods: A 12-week phase 3 trial evaluated the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of atogepant for preventive treatment of migraine (ADVANCE; NCT03777059) in adult participants with a ≥1-year history of migraine, experiencing 4-14 migraine days/month. Participants were randomized to atogepant 10, 30, or 60mg, or placebo once daily. These analyses evaluated ≥25%, ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions in mean monthly migraine days (MMDs) across 12 weeks and each 4-week interval. Adverse events (AEs) in ≥5% of participants are reported. Results: The efficacy analysis population included 873 participants: placebo: n=214; atogepant: 10mg: n=214; 30mg: n=223; 60mg: n=222. Atogepant-treated participants were more likely to experience a ≥50% reduction in the 3-month mean MMDs (56-61% vs 29% with placebo; P<0.0001). The proportions of participants experiencing ≥25%, ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions in mean MMDs significantly increased during each 4-week interval (≥50% reduction: 48-71% vs 27-47% with placebo). The most common AEs for atogepant were constipation (6.9-7.7%) and nausea (4.4-6.1%). Conclusions: Once-daily atogepant 10, 30, and 60mg significantly increased responder rates at all thresholds with approximately 60% achieving a ≥50% reduction in mean MMDs at 12 weeks.
The research reported in this paper is aimed at the development of a metric to quantify and predict the extent of pilot control compensation required to fly a wide range of mission task elements. To do this, the utility of a range of time- and frequency-domain measures to examine pilot control activity whilst flying hover/low-speed and forward flight tasks are explored. The tasks were performed by two test pilots using both the National Research Council (Canada)’s Bell 412 Advanced Systems Research Aircraft and the University of Liverpool’s HELIFLIGHT-R simulator. Handling qualities ratings were awarded for each of the tasks and compared with a newly developed weighted adaptive control compensation metric based on discrete pilot inputs, showing good correlation. Moreover, in combination with a time-varying frequency-domain exposure, the proposed metric is shown to be useful for understanding the relationship between the pilot’s subjective assessment, measured control activity and task performance. By collating the results from the subjective and objective metrics for a range of different mission task elements, compensation boundaries are proposed to predict and verify the subjective assessments from the Cooper-Harper Handling Qualities Rating scale.
This study aimed to investigate the association of nasal nitric oxide and olfactory function.
A cross-sectional study was performed in 117 adults, including 91 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 26 healthy controls. Scores on the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test, Lund-Mackay scale and Lund-Kennedy scale were recorded to assess severity of disease. All participants were screened for common inhaled and food allergens. Nasal nitric oxide and fractional exhaled nitric oxide testing, acoustic rhinometry and anterior rhinomanometry testing were performed to measure nasal function. The validated Sniffin’ Sticks test battery was used to assess olfactory function.
Higher nasal nitric oxide was an independent protective factor for odour discrimination and odour threshold in participants with chronic rhinosinusitis after adjusting for age, gender, drinking, smoking, 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test, Lund-Mackay score, Lund-Kennedy score, immunoglobulin E and the second minimal cross-sectional area by acoustic rhinometry. Nasal nitric oxide also showed high discrimination in predicting impaired odour discrimination. In addition, nasal nitric oxide was lower in older participants, those with higher Lund-Mackay or Lund-Kennedy scores and higher with elevated total serum immunoglobulin E concentrations above a threshold of 0.35 kU/l.
Higher nasal nitric oxide is associated with better odour discrimination in chronic rhinosinusitis and is modulated by age, degree of allergy and severity of chronic rhinosinusitis.
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity that typically develops after the administration of infant formula, suggesting a link between nutritional components and disease development. One of the most significant complications that develops in patients with NEC is severe lung injury. We have previously shown that the administration of a nutritional formula that is enriched in pre-digested Triacylglyceride that do not require lipase action can significantly reduce the severity of NEC in a mouse model. We now hypothesise that this ‘pre-digested fat (PDF) system’ may reduce NEC-associated lung injury. In support of this hypothesis, we now show that rearing newborn mice on a nutritional formula based on the ‘PDF system’ promotes lung development, as evidenced by increased tight junctions and surfactant protein expression. Mice that were administered this ‘PDF system’ were significantly less vulnerable to the development of NEC-induced lung inflammation, and the administration of the ‘PDF system’ conferred lung protection. In seeking to define the mechanisms involved, the administration of the ‘PDF system’ significantly enhanced lung maturation and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings suggest that the PDF system protects the development of NEC-induced lung injury through effects on lung maturation and reduced ROS in the lung and also increases lung maturation in non-NEC mice.
Approximately 60 000 people in England have coexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and severe mental illness (SMI). They are more likely to have poorer health outcomes and require more complex care pathways compared with those with T2DM alone. Despite increasing prevalence, little is known about the healthcare resource use and costs for people with both conditions.
To assess the impact of SMI on healthcare resource use and service costs for adults with T2DM, and explore the predictors of healthcare costs and lifetime costs for people with both conditions.
This was a matched-cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics for 1620 people with comorbid SMI and T2DM and 4763 people with T2DM alone. Generalised linear models and the Bang and Tsiatis method were used to explore cost predictors and mean lifetime costs respectively.
There were higher average annual costs for people with T2DM and SMI (£1930 higher) than people with T2DM alone, driven primarily by mental health and non-mental health-related hospital admissions. Key predictors of higher total costs were older age, comorbid hypertension, use of antidepressants, use of first-generation antipsychotics, and increased duration of living with both conditions. Expected lifetime costs were approximately £35 000 per person with both SMI and T2DM. Extrapolating nationally, this would generate total annual costs to the National Health Service of around £250 m per year.
Our estimates of resource use and costs for people with both T2DM and SMI will aid policymakers and commissioners in service planning and resource allocation.