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Mental ill health is more common among juvenile offenders relative to adolescents in general. Little is known about individual differences in their long-term psychological adaptation and its predictors from multiple aspects of their life. This study aims to identify heterogeneous trajectories of probable psychiatric conditions and their predictors. Participants included 574 juvenile offenders who were first convicted for serious crimes and without detention history. The participants were assessed at 11 timepoints over seven years (2000–2010). Growth mixture modeling revealed the same three trajectories for both probable anxiety and probable depression: stable low trajectory (75.96%; 75.78%), stable high trajectory (15.16%; 10.98%), and recovery (8.89%, 13.24%). Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression identified three multilevel predictors for memberships of different trajectories. Risk factors against stable low trajectory lay within personal (e.g., neuroticism), relationship (e.g., parental hostility), and contextual levels (e.g., chaotic neighborhood). Resilience factors for stable low trajectory included strong work orientation and low education level of father. Recovery was predicted by Black race, self-identity, high education level of father, and nonincarcerated sentencing. Our findings suggest that both psychopathology and psychological resilience could be predicted by multiple personal, relationship, and contextual factors in the social ecology of juvenile offenders.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive impairments. It is unclear whether problems persist after PTSD symptoms remit.
Data came from 12 270 trauma-exposed women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Trauma and PTSD symptoms were assessed using validated scales to determine PTSD status as of 2008 (trauma/no PTSD, remitted PTSD, unresolved PTSD) and symptom severity (lifetime and past-month). Starting in 2014, cognitive function was assessed using the Cogstate Brief Battery every 6 or 12 months for up to 24 months. PTSD associations with baseline cognition and longitudinal cognitive changes were estimated by covariate-adjusted linear regression and linear mixed-effects models, respectively.
Compared to women with trauma/no PTSD, women with remitted PTSD symptoms had a similar cognitive function at baseline, while women with unresolved PTSD symptoms had worse psychomotor speed/attention and learning/working memory. In women with unresolved PTSD symptoms, past-month PTSD symptom severity was inversely associated with baseline cognition. Over follow-up, both women with remitted and unresolved PTSD symptoms in 2008, especially those with high levels of symptoms, had a faster decline in learning/working memory than women with trauma/no PTSD. In women with remitted PTSD symptoms, higher lifetime PTSD symptom severity was associated with a faster decline in learning/working memory. Results were robust to the adjustment for sociodemographic, biobehavioral, and health factors and were partially attenuated when adjusted for depression.
Unresolved but not remitted PTSD was associated with worse cognitive function assessed six years later. Accelerated cognitive decline was observed among women with either unresolved or remitted PTSD symptoms.
The boundary layer thickness on a compressor blade suction surface increases rapidly under a adverse pressure gradient and even separates from the blade surface. This paper proposes a novel method for developing the slot inside the blade, with the inlet of the slot located at the leading edge of the blade and the outlet located at the suction surface, using the momentum of the incoming flow to form a high velocity jet to control the boundary layer on the suction surface. For a plane cascade with a diffusion factor of 0.45, the effects of the main slot parametres (such as the shape of the slot and the positions of the slot inlet and outlet) on the flow in the slot, the flow field and the aerodynamic performance of the cascade were investigated with a numerical method. When the aerodynamic performance of cascades with slotted and unslotted blades was compared, it was found that a reasonable slot structure can effectively inhibit the development of the boundary layer on the blade suction surface and greatly improve the aerodynamic performance of the cascade. Based on the influence of the slot parametres of the above cascade, the slot of a plane cascade with a diffusion factor of 0.60 was designed. The numerical calculation results show that the slotted cascade with a diffusion factor of 0.60 outperformed the slotted cascade with a diffusion factor of 0.45. This result showed that the higher the cascade load, the greater the performance improvement from slotting. Furthermore, the unslotted and slotted cascades were tested, and the test results agreed well with the calculations. The aerodynamic performance of the slotted cascade was better than that of the unslotted cascade, which verifies the accuracy of the calculation method and the feasibility of blade slotting for suppressing the development of boundary layers on suction surfaces and reducing flow loss.
Six consecutive solitary waves with identical wave height and separation time are generated to study the flow structures during the uprush–downwash interactions in the swash zone. Using particle image velocimetry, the cross-shore velocity fields are captured. Two different wave conditions are examined with different wave-height-to-water-depth ratios, i.e. $H_o/h=0.11$ and 0.22. The uprush–downwash interaction reaches quasi-steady state from the third solitary wave for both cases. For the former case, a weak non-stationary hydraulic jump appears during the downwash flow for all the six consecutive waves. The weak hydraulic jump evolves into a momentarily ‘stationary’ broken bore when the next wave arrives. For the latter case, the larger wave height generates stronger wave breaking. No non-stationary hydraulic jump is observed as the duration of downwash flow is relatively short. The flow reverses to the onshore direction before the downwash Froude number reaches the hydraulic jump condition. The temporal and spatial evolution of turbulence structure at the quasi-steady state is quantified using the spatial spectral analysis, the integral length scale and turbulence eddy viscosity. The results suggest that the large-scale energy generated during the uprush–downwash interaction modified the slope of the turbulence energy spatial spectrum in the inertial subrange from $-$5/3 to $-$1 in the larger length scale region, indicating the energy cascade depends not only on the dissipation rate, but also on the turbulent kinetic energy from the large-scale turbulence structure because of the large-scale energy injection in the inertial subrange.
Despite understanding its impact on organizational effectiveness, practical guidance on how to train translational team (TT) leaders is lacking. Previously, we developed an evolutionary learning model of TT maturation consisting of three goal-directed phases: (1). team assembly (Formation); (2). conducting research (Knowledge Generation); and (3). dissemination and implementation (Translation). At each phase, the team acquires group-level knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) that enhance its performance. Noting that the majority of team-emergent KSAs are promoted by leadership behaviors, we examine the SciTS literature to identify the relevant behaviors for each phase. We propose that effective team leadership evolves from a hierarchical, transformational model early in team Formation to a shared, functional leadership model during Translation. We synthesized an integrated model of TT leadership, mapping a generic “functional leadership” taxonomy to relevant leadership behaviors linked to TT performance, creating an evidence-informed Leadership and Skills Enhancement for Research (LASER) training program. Empirical studies indicate that leadership behaviors are stable across time; to enhance leadership skills, ongoing reflection, evaluation, and practice are needed. We provide a comprehensive multi-level evaluation framework for tracking the growth of TT leadership skills. This work provides a framework for assessing and training relevant leadership behaviors for high-performance TTs.
Research suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic and related stressors have triggered OCS for many individuals. However, the extent to which the pandemic and related stressors have influenced OCS seems to vary by individual factors, with some individuals being at greater risk than others. Despite the well-known role of cognitive inflexibility as a marker of risk for OCS, no study to date has examined the extent to which it influences individual susceptibility to developing OCS during the current pandemic. Toward this aim, the current study examined whether cognitive flexibility moderates whether exposure to COVID-related stressors is associated with OCS. Research suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic and related stressors have triggered OCS for many individuals. However, the extent to which the pandemic and related stressors have influenced OCS seems to vary by individual factors, with some individuals being at greater risk than others. Despite the well-known role of cognitive inflexibility as a marker of risk for OCS, no study to date has examined the extent to which it influences individual susceptibility to developing OCS during the current pandemic.
Toward this aim, the current study examined whether cognitive flexibility moderates whether exposure to COVID-related stressors is associated with OCS.
Participants were 169 students (age = 22 years, 62% female) from two student cohorts at Monash Business School who reported experiencing current OCS symptoms. All cohorts completed an online visual search task to measure flexibility of reward-related attentional capture (as an index of cognitive flexibility; measured using the VMAC-R task) and questionnaires gauging exposure to COVID-related stressors, pre-pandemic OCS, and current/lockdown OCS. A negative binomial regression examined the extent to which a) number of COVID-related stressors, b) cognitive flexibility, and c) their interaction was associated with lockdown OCS, adjusting for pre-COVID OCS.
The interaction between COVID-related stressors and cognitive flexibility was significantly associated with OCS (p = 0.048). Follow-up analyses showed that this interaction was driven by exposure to COVID-related stressors being associated with greater OCS among individuals with high cognitive inflexibility scores only (p = .029). Among cognitively flexible individuals, we did not find a relationship between COVID-related stressors and OCS (p = .470).
The result of this study highlight the role of cognitive flexibility as a potential moderator between COVID events and OCS. Critically, these findings have implications for detecting who is at risk of developing OCS following exposure to COVID-related stressors, and suggest that future interventions aimed at modifying cognitive flexibility may hold promise for boosting resilience against the effects of COVID-related stressors on OCS.
There are various ways people cope with life events. One can expect generalized positive or negative outcomes across various life domains, called dispositional optimism. This can be explained by attribution theory: how people explain past events, their causations, and outcomes. Understanding attribution styles is important to help people reframe current circumstances and improve mental wellbeing. Our hypothesis is that people of different religious groups may exhibit various levels of optimism and pessimism based on their values, teachings, and practices. Previous research has found that people of Christian faith, or those with a religious faith in general, look to their religion as a way of coping during life adversities. Certain religious practices such as prayers and Church gatherings have been found to improve mental health through increasing dispositional optimism. While the relationship between religiosity and mental health has been previously examined in different religious populations, there are few studies that focused on comparing this relationship across religions.
The objective of this scoping review is to understand the link between religiosity and mental health, focusing primarily on how people of the Christian religion demonstrate dispositional optimism or pessimism when coping with adverse life events, compared to other religious groups or atheists.
This scoping review included original peer reviewed study articles that studied mental health in terms of dispositional optimism or pessimism in people of Christian religion compared to other religious groups. This review used online databases, Ovid MEDLINE and PsycInfo, and used extraction tables to analyze the results of past research.
The results of this scoping review revealed that people of Christian religion, especially those high in religiosity, use their religion as a method of coping. This population also showed higher dispositional optimism compared to atheists or those that believe in other religions. However, when compared to other religions such as Buddhism and Muslim, Christian populations showed lower dispositional optimism.
It is evident that religious involvement is linked to aspects of mental health, but comparing the effects of different religions is still a topic of exploration that can be investigated further to allow deeper understanding of their similarities and differences, as well as the mechanisms by which religion can affect mental health. In this review, a gap in the body of knowledge regarding the relationship between religion and pessimism was revealed. Future research directions could include examining whether dispositional pessimism varies across religious groups, as it does not necessarily have a perfectly inverse relationship with optimism.
There is a paucity of research examining the patterning of socioeconomic disadvantages and mental health problems across multiple generations. The significance of research on multigenerational processes is based on a concern with if and how (dis)advantages are generated and sustained across generations, and how socioeconomic, mental health, and gender inequalities evolve over a longer period of time.
The current study therefore aimed to investigate the interconnected transmissions of socioeconomic disadvantages and mental health problems from grandparents to grandchildren through the parents, as well as the extent to which these transmissions differ according to lineage (i.e., through matrilineal/patrilineal descent) and grandchild gender.
Drawing on the Stockholm Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, the sample included 21,416 unique lineages by grandchild gender centered around cohort members born in 1953 (parental generation) as well as their children (grandchild generation) and their parents (grandparental generation). Based on local and national register data, socioeconomic disadvantages were operationalized as low income, and mental health problems as psychiatric disorders. A series of path models based on structural equation modelling were applied to estimate the associations between low income and psychiatric disorders across generations and for each lineage-G2 gender combination.
We found a multigenerational transmission of low income through the patriline to grandchildren. Psychiatric disorders were transmitted through both the patriline and matriline, but only to grandsons. The patriline-grandson transmission of psychiatric disorders was partially operated via low income of the fathers. Furthermore, grandparents’ psychiatric disorders influenced their children’s and grandchildren’s income.
We conclude that there is evidence of transmissions of socioeconomic disadvantages and mental health problems across three generations, although these transmissions differ by lineage and grandchild gender. Our findings further highlight that grandparents’ mental health problems could cast a long shadow on their children’s and grandchildren’s socioeconomic outcomes, and that socioeconomic disadvantages in the intermediate generation may play an important role for the multigenerational transmission of mental health problems.
To examine diet quality and diet-related factors among male adults of reproductive age with and without disabilities.
Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013–2018.
Disability was reported as serious difficulty hearing, seeing, concentrating, walking, dressing and/or running errands due to physical, mental or emotional conditions. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and diet-related factors included self-rated diet healthfulness, food security and food assistance programmes. Multivariable linear regression estimated differences in HEI-2015 scores. Multivariable Poisson regression estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95 % CI for diet-related factors.
In total, 3249 males, 18–44 years; of whom, 441 (13·4 %) reported having disabilities.
Compared with males without disabilities, those with disabilities had a 2·69-point (95 % CI: –4·18, –1·20) lower mean total HEI-2015 score and approximately one-third to half of a point lower HEI-2015 component scores for greens and beans, total protein foods, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids and added sugars. Males with any disabilities were more likely to have low food security (aPR = 1·57; 95 % CI: 1·28, 2·92); household participation in food assistance programmes (aPR = 1·61; 95 % CI: 1·34, 1·93) and consume fast food meals during the previous week (1–3 meals: aPR = 1·11; 95 % CI: 1·01–1·21 and 4 or more meals: aPR = 1·18; 95 % CI: 1·01–1·38) compared with males with no disabilities.
Factors affecting diet and other modifiable health behaviours among male adults of reproductive age with disabilities require further investigation. Health promotion strategies that are adaptive to diverse populations within the disability community are needed.
As an effective drag reduction and thermal protection technology, the opposing jet can guarantee the flight safety of the hypersonic vehicle. In this paper, the jet mode transition is realised by controlling the total jet pressure ratio value (PR) with a function. The jet mode transition from the long penetration mode (LPM) to the short penetration mode (SPM) uses an increasing function. However, the jet mode transition from SPM to LPM uses a decreasing function. The flow field reconstruction process of a two-dimensional axisymmetric blunt body model in the hypersonic flow is studied when the jet mode transition between SPM and LPM changes into each other. The flow field structures and wall parameters of the LPM and SPM transition processes are obtained. The results indicate that the drag and Stanton number both decrease in the transition stage from LPM to SPM, and this is beneficial for the improvement of the drag reduction and thermal protection effect. The peak values of drag and Stanton number fall by 36.39% and 46.40%, respectively. When the jet mode transforms from SPM to LPM, the Stanton number increases, and the drag force first increases and then decreases. However, the final drag reduction effect is not obvious. With the increase in the change rate of the total pressure ratio of the two jet transformation modes, the jet mode transition time is advanced, and the flow field changes more violently.
Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with the ability to infect any nucleated cell in humans. Most immunocompetent infected individuals are asymptomatic. Latent toxoplasma can become reactivated in immunocompromised individuals though this is exceptionally rare in HIV-negative individuals. Methods: We present the case of a 47-year-old male with chronic immunosuppression secondary to marginal zone lymphoma and steroid therapy. Results: The patient presented to hospital with a 1-week history of word-finding difficulties, intermittent right facial numbness and leg weakness, and tonic-clonic seizures. CT head showed a left temporal heterogenous mass measuring 2.8 × 2.8 × 3.5 cm. Biopsy of the lesion showed Multiple tachyzoites and rare bradyzoites with strong positivity for the toxoplasma specific immunostain. The patient was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole which resulted in complete neurologic recovery. Conclusions: Our literature review included 32 cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative patients with an overall mortality rate of 48%. Cerebral toxoplasmosis has a predilection for immunosuppressed patients with an underlying hematologic malignancy (74%, n= 23). Successful treatment requires early recognition of the disease and prompt treatment with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, pyrimethamine, or sulfadiazine. Patients who recover from acute toxoplasmosis should remain on lifelong suppressive antibiotic therapy to prevent relapse.
Background: Basilar fenestration is a rare congenital anomaly. When present, it is commonly found at the proximal portion of the artery near the vertebrobasilar junction. Methods: This is a case report of a ruptured basilar fenestration aneurysm in a 47-year-male successfully treated with endovascular coiling. Results: A 47-year-old male presented with sudden onset headache, neck pain, blurry vision, nausea, vomiting, and diaphoresis. Cerebral angiogram revealed a saccular basilar fenestration aneurysm located at the vertebrobasilar junction measuring 3.1 x 2.6 x 3.4 mm with a 2.3 mm neck. Multiple coils were placed including Target 360 Nano 2mm x 4 cm (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, US), Target 360 Nano 1.5 mm x 2 cm (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, US), and Target Helical Nano 1.5 mm x 1 cm (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, US). A repeat angiogram revealed complete exclusion of the aneurysm with preservation of both vertebral arteries. Conclusions: A literature review was conducted on basilar fenestration aneurysms which included 158 patients from 39 studies. Overall, complete exclusion of the aneurysm was achieved in 75.8% of cases, with 22.4% of cases having residual flow and 1.8% of cases with unreported exclusion status.
Undulating and breaking bores are generated in the laboratory using a programmable long-stroke wavemaker. By changing the stroke length and the speed of the wavemaker, both non-decaying and decaying bores are generated and studied. Bore strength, height and duration are measured and compared with the solutions derived by using the method of characteristics, with excellent agreement. The measurements for inundation depth, runup height and flood duration are checked with the formulas presented in Barranco & Liu (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 915, 2021). The comparisons show that the formulas are also accurate for the non-decaying bores generated by the wavemaker. The maximum inundation depth predicted by the formula for zero bore length at the beach toe agrees with the laboratory observations for decaying bores. Using a high-speed particle image velocimetry system, the ensemble-averaged velocities and fluctuating velocities under undulating bores and breaking bores are measured in constant water depth and in the vicinity of the still water shoreline. Detailed analyses of the velocity fields are presented and discussed. For the undulating bore a long quiescent flood duration is observed, while for the breaking bore the up-rush flow changes into down-rush flow almost linearly.
Impactful, transdisciplinary scientific discoveries are created by teams of researchers spanning multiple disciplines, but collaboration across disciplines can be challenging. We examined how team dynamics and collaboration are related to successes and barriers faced by teams of researchers from multiple disciplines.
A mixed-methods approach was used to examine 12 research teams granted multidisciplinary pilot awards. Team members were surveyed to assess their team dynamics and individual views about transdisciplinary research. Forty-seven researchers (59.5%) responded, including two to eight members from each funded team. Associations were examined between collaborative dynamics and scholarly product outcomes, including manuscripts, grant proposals, and awarded grants. One member from each team was selected for an in-depth interview to contextualize and extend information about collaborative processes, successes, and barriers to performing transdisciplinary research.
Quality of team interactions was positively associated with achievement of scholarly products (r = 0.64, p = 0.02). Satisfaction with team members (r = 0.38) and team collaboration scores (r = 0.43) also demonstrated positive associations with achievement of scholarly products, but these were not statistically significant. Qualitative results support these findings and add further insight into aspects of the collaborative process that were particularly important to foster success on multidisciplinary teams. Beyond scholarly metrics, additional successes from the multidisciplinary teams were identified through the qualitative portion of the study including career development and acceleration for early career researchers.
Both the quantitative and qualitative study results indicate that effective collaboration is critical to multidisciplinary research team success. Development and/or promotion of team science-based trainings for researchers would promote these collaborative skills.
Meat quality is not only influenced by breed but also rearing environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different housing environments on growth performance, carcase traits, meat quality, physiological response pre-slaughter and fatty acid composition in two pig breeds. A total of 120 growing pigs at 60-70 days of age were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with the breeds (Duroc × Landrace × Large White [D × L × LW] and Duroc × Landrace × Min pig [D × L × M]) and environmental enrichment (barren concrete floor or enriched with straw bedding) as factors. Each treatment was performed in triplicate with ten pigs per replicate. The pigs housed in the enriched environment exhibited a higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake, saturated fatty acid percentage and backfat depth than the pigs reared in the barren environment. Plasma cortisol levels were lower and growth hormone higher in enriched compared to barren pens. The D × L × M pigs showed lower cooking loss compared with the D × L × LW pigs. Moreover, the D × L × M pigs exhibited poor growth performance but had a better water-holding capacity. Only carcase traits and meat quality interaction effects were observed. We concluded that an enriched environment can reduce preslaughter stress and improve the growth performance of pigs and modulate the fatty acid composition of pork products.
This study aimed to explore the utility of the eosinophil percentage in peripheral blood for guiding post-operative glucocorticoid therapy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.
Forty-four patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery and were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the standard treatment group used oral and nasal spray glucocorticoids. In the biomarker treatment group, patients with peripheral blood eosinophil percentage values less than 3.05 per cent did not receive glucocorticoid treatment, whereas patients with values 3.05 per cent or above were part of the standard treatment group. Visual Analogue Scale, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 scores, endoscopic Lund–Kennedy scores, eosinophils, interleukin-5 and eosinophil cationic protein in peripheral blood, and nasal secretions were measured.
After functional endoscopic sinus surgery, the Visual Analogue Scale, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 and Lund–Kennedy scores were significantly reduced in both groups; there were no significant differences in those indicators between the groups during the three follow-up visits.
Peripheral blood eosinophil percentage offers a potential biomarker to guide post-operative glucocorticoid therapy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.
This study aimed to analyse the temporal and spatial trends in the burden of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder related to bullying victimisation on global, regional and country scales.
Data were from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study. We assessed the global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, per 100 000 population) of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation by age, sex and geographical location. The percentage changes in age-standardised rates of DALYs were used to quantify temporal trends, and the annual rate changes across 204 countries and territories were used to present spatial trends. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between the sociodemographic index (SDI) and the burden of anxiety disorders as well as major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation and its spatial and temporal characteristics globally.
From 1990 to 2019, the global DALY rates of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation increased by 23.31 and 26.60%, respectively, with 27.27 and 29.07% for females and 18.88 and 23.84% for males. Across the 21 GBD regions, the highest age-standardised rates of bullying victimisation-related DALYs for anxiety disorders were in North Africa and the Middle East and for major depressive disorder in High-income North America. From 1990 to 2019, the region with the largest percentage increase in the rates of DALYs was High-income North America (54.66% for anxiety disorders and 105.88% for major depressive disorder), whereas the region with the slowest growth rate or largest percentage decline was East Asia (1.71% for anxiety disorders and −25.37% for major depressive disorder). In terms of SDI, this study found overall upward trends of bullying-related mental disorders in areas regardless of the SDI levels, although there were temporary downward trends in some stages of certain areas.
The number and rates of DALYs of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation increased from 1990 to 2019. Effective strategies to eliminate bullying victimisation in children and adolescents are needed to reduce the burden of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Considering the large variations in the burden by SDI and geographic location, future protective actions should be developed based on the specific cultural contexts, development status and regional characteristics of each country.
As a basic flow model for engineering applications, wall-bounded turbulent flow has been widely studied in the field of aero-optics, but the flow control methods that could effectively suppress aero-optical effects are relatively rare. As an urgent requirement in engineering application, the concept of the steady wall blowing and suction is proposed by the author. Firstly, the author briefly described the flow model and physical method. Secondly, the choice of disturbance type is given. Then, the results of wall blowing-suction, suction and blowing ways based on steady and unsteady disturbance are compared. Finally, it is concluded that employing the high steady wall blowing disturbance (A = 0.2) could realise aero-optical suppression by around 20%. Besides, the steady wall suction scheme contributes to about 70%–80% reduction effect within a wide amplitude range (A = 0.2–1.0), which suppresses this effect by maintaining laminar state downstream contrasted by the baseline case.