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Research exploring the longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has documented four modal trajectories (low, remitting, high, and delayed), with proportions varying across studies. Heterogeneity could be due to differences in trauma types and patient demographic characteristics.
This analysis pooled data from six longitudinal studies of adult survivors of civilian-related injuries admitted to general hospital emergency departments (EDs) in six countries (pooled N = 3083). Each study included at least three assessments of the clinician-administered PTSD scale in the first post-trauma year. Latent class growth analysis determined the proportion of participants exhibiting various PTSD symptom trajectories within and across the datasets. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined demographic characteristics, type of event leading to the injury, and trauma history as predictors of trajectories differentiated by their initial severity and course.
Five trajectories were found across the datasets: Low (64.5%), Remitting (16.9%), Moderate (6.7%), High (6.5%), and Delayed (5.5%). Female gender, non-white race, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries were associated with increased risk for initial PTSD reactions. Female gender and assaultive injuries were associated with risk for membership in the Delayed (v. Low) trajectory, and lower education, prior interpersonal trauma, and assaultive injuries with risk for membership in the High (v. Remitting) trajectory.
The results suggest that over 30% of civilian-related injury survivors admitted to EDs experience moderate-to-high levels of PTSD symptoms within the first post-trauma year, with those reporting assaultive violence at increased risk of both immediate and longer-term symptoms.
To test the associations between sleep indices and eating behaviours in young adults, a group vulnerable to suboptimal sleep.
Cross-sectional analysis of survey measures of sleep (i.e. time in bed, variability, timing and quality) and dietary patterns (i.e. breakfast skipping, eating at fast-food restaurants, consumption of sports and energy drinks, and sugar-free, sugar-sweetened and caffeinated beverages).
Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota (USA).
A total of 1854 respondents (20–30 years, 55·6 % female) from the 2008–2009 survey conducted for the third wave of the population-based Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) study.
After adjustment for demographic and behavioural covariates in linear regression models, those who went to bed after 00.30 hours consumed 0·3 more servings of sugar-sweetened beverages per day, consumed 1·7 times more energy drinks, skipped breakfast 1·8 more times per week and consumed fast food 0·3 more times per week compared with those who went to bed before 22.30 hours. Reported sleep quality in the lowest (Q1) v. highest (Q3) tertile was associated with more intake of energy drinks (Q3 v. Q1, prevalence ratio, 95 % CI: 1·79, 1·24, 2·34), sports drinks (1·28, 1·00, 1·55) and breakfast skipping (adjusted mean, 95 % CI: Q1: 4·03, 3·81, 4·26; Q3: 3·43, 3·17, 3·69). Time in bed and sleep variability were associated with few eating behaviours.
Some, but not all, sleep indices were related to problematic eating behaviours. Sleep habits may be important to address in interventions and policies that target improvements in eating patterns and health outcomes.
Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type.
Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store.
Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA.
Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers.
Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4.
Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.
Using the PALS iodine laser system, Au ions with the charge state up to 58+ and with the kinetic energy as high as ~300 MeV were generated. The production of these ions was tested in dependence on the laser frequency (1ω, 3ω), on the irradiation/detection angles (0°, 30°), on the focus position with regard to the target surface, and on the target thickness (500 µm, 200 µm, 80 µm). A larger amount of the fastest ions was produced with 1ω than with 3ω, the most of the fast ions were recorded in the direction ~10° from the target normal, the optimum focus position is in front of the target and should be set on with a precision of 50 µm. The forward emission is weaker than the backward one for both of the thinner targets (which burn through) at our experimental conditions.
Repeated plasma outbursts were recognized at our analyzing currents of the fast carbon and fluorine ions produced with the sub-nanosecond PALS laser beam (λ0 = 1.315 µm, τL = ≈350 ps, Imax ≈ 6 × 1015 W/cm2) focused onto polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene targets. This study deals with a repetitive occurrence of doublets of C6+-C5+ and F9+-F8+ ion peaks in the time-of-flight (TOF) spectra, whose TOF can be related to the same accelerating voltage: . The repeated occurrence of ion outbursts containing fully ionized ions can be characterized by a set of discrete voltages Ui, where the subscript i ∈ (1, N) labels the outbursts of ions from the fastest one (i = 1) up to the slowest and in the TOF spectrum yet distinguishable outburst (i = N). These discrete values could indicate plasma pulsations followed by repetitive outbursts of ions. The ions expand with a velocity up to ≈9 × 108 cm/s. The corresponding values of the accelerating voltage of ≈800 kv, and the temperature of ≈1.1 keV were determined by revealing partial ion currents based on the shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution. Characteristics of fast ion outbursts depend on the focus position with respect to the target surface.
Angular distributions of currents and velocities (energies) of ions produced at various target irradiation angles and laser intensities ranged from 1010 W/cm2 to 1017 W/cm2 were analyzed. It was confirmed that for low laser intensities the ion current distributions are always peaked along the target normal. However, at laser intensities comparable to or higher than 1014 W/cm2, the preferred direction of ion emission strongly depends on the irradiation geometry (laser focus setting, the irradiation angle), and can be off the target normal. This is very likely caused by the non-linear interaction of the laser beam with produced plasma, in particular, by the action of ponderomotive forces and the laser beam self-focusing.
Self-focusing effects, induced by ASTERIX pulsed laser at PALS Laboratory of Prague, have been investigated. Laser was employed at the third harmonics (438 nm) and intensities of the order of 1016 W/cm2. Pure Au was used as thin target and irradiated with 30° incidence angle. An ion energy analyzer was employed to detect the energy-to-mass ratio of emitted ions from plasma. Measurements were performed by changing the focal point position with a high spatial resolution step-motor. Results demonstrated that non linear processes, due to self-focusing effects, occurs when the laser beam is focused at about 200 µm in front of the target surface. In such conditions, a new ion group, having high charge state and kinetic energy, is produced because of the increment in temperature of the laser-generated plasma.
Intense laser-beam interactions with preformed plasma, preceding the laser-target interactions, significantly influence both the ion and X-ray generation. It is due to the laser pulse (its total length, the shape of the front edge, its background, the contrast, the radial homogeneity) as well as plasma (density, temperature) properties. Generation of the super fast (FF) ion groups is connected with a presence of non-linear processes. Saturated maximum of the charge states (independently on the laser intensity) is ascribed to the constant limit radius of the self-focused laser beam. Its longitudinal structure is considered as a possible explanation for the course of some experimental dependencies obtained.
Various applications demand various kinds of ions. Charge state, energy and the amount of laser produced ions depend, primary, on the wavelength, the energy, the pulse duration, and the focusing ability of the laser used. Angle of the target irradiation, angle of the ion extraction (recording), and mainly the focus setting may significantly influence especially the portion of ions with the highest charge states. The participation of non-linear processes on the generation of ions with extremely high parameters is demonstrated. The observed effects support the idea of a longitudinal structure of the self-focused laser beam with a space period of ∼200 µm.
Laser-beam interaction with expanding plasma was investigated using
the PALS high-power iodine-laser system. The interaction conditions are
significantly changing with the laser focus spot position. The decisive
role of the laser-beam self-focusing, participating in the production of
ions with the highest charge states, was proved.
Measurements of the ion emission from targets irradiated with
neodymium glass and iodine lasers were analyzed and a very significant
anomaly observed. The fastest ions with high charge number Z,
which usually are of megaelectron volt energy following the
relativistic self-focusing and nonlinear-force acceleration theory,
were reduced to less than 50 times lower energies when 1.2 ps laser
pulses of about 1 J were incident. We clarify this discrepancy by the
model of skin depth plasma front interaction in contrast to the
relativistic self-focusing with filament generation. This was indicated
also from the unique fact that the ion number was independent of the
laser intensity. The skin layer theory prescribes prepulse control and
lower (near relativistic threshold) laser intensities for
nonlinear-force-driven plasma blocks for high-gain ignition similar to
light ion beam fusion.
Correlations of Doppler shifted line shapes with time-of-flight
spectra of fast ions has been established for nanosecond-laser
pulses. Fast ion energies of different velocity groups have
been established in the large interval of Iλ2
= 4 × 1012–5 × 1016
W/cm2 μm2. The obtained scaling
relations differ markedly from those reported by Gitomer
et al. (1996).
The experimental results of the investigations on the influence
of external magnetic and electric fields on the characteristics
of a tungsten ion stream emitted from a plasma produced by the
Nd:glass laser (1 J, 1 ns) performed at IPPLM, Warsaw are
presented. A negatively biased target up to −15 kV and
a magnetic field up to 0.45 T were used in the experiment. A
set of ion collectors and an electrostatic cylindrical ion energy
analyzer located at small angles with respect to the laser beam
axis and at large distances from the target were applied for
ion measurements. The effect of an external magnetic field is
essential to plasma expansion, but the effect of the retarding
potential of the target is very weak in our experimental
conditions. The aim of the studies was to prove the possibility
of the optimization of ion beam parameters from laser-produced
plasma for the particular application as a laser ion source
coupled with the electron cyclotron resonance ion source for
This paper presents comprehensive experimental
results of angular distributions of ions emitted from laser-produced
plasmas. Performing a series of laser shots onto planar
Sn, Au, and Pb targets, both the focusing conditions as
well as the tilt angle of the target were changed to study
the effect on the plasma expansion. In the experiments,
the iodine laser system PERUN (laser energy of 30 J in
350 ps of duration) with laser power density of 5 ×
1014 W/cm2 was used. For plasma diagnostics
four ion collectors and an ion-energy analyzer were applied.
Comparison of angular distribution of the fast ion group
(velocity within the range of 1–3.4 × 108
cm/s) and of the slow ion group (velocity within the range
of 0.14–1 × 108 cm/s) shows distinct
differences. The preferred direction of ion emission of
these groups depends seriously on focusing conditions.
When setting the focus on the in-focus position both groups
of ions are peaked in the direction close to the target
normal. The maximum charge of ions registered by the ion-energy
analyzer were 36+, 51+, and 49+ for Sn, Au, and Pb, respectively.
Maximum charge states of ions registered in the far expansion zone from laser-produced plasma of Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Pb, and Bi are presented. The Thomson parabola spectrometer was used to display a general view of the ion species of an expanding plasma while detailed ion charge-energy spectra were determined by the cylindrical electrostatic ion energy analyzer. The current densities of highly charged ion groups above 20 mA/cm2 were measured by use of an ion collector at a distance of ∼1 m from the target. The photodissociation iodine laser system PERUN (λ = 1.315 μm, power density up to ∼1015 W cm−2) was employed as a driver.
Results are presented of experiments on ion production from Ta targets using a short pulse (350–600 ps in focus) illumination with focal power densities exceeding 1014 Wcm-2 at the wavelength of an iodine photodissociation laser (1.315 μm) and its harmonics. Strong evidence of the existence of tantalum ions with the charge state +45 near the target surface was obtained by X-ray spectroscopy methods. The particle diagnostics point to the existence of frozen high charge states (<53+) of Ta ions in the far expansion zone at about 2 m from the target. The measured charge state-ion energy distribution indicates the highest energy (>4 MeV) for the highest observed charge states. A tentative theoretical explanation of the observed anomalous charge state freezing phenomenon in the expanding plasma produced by a subnanosecond laser pulse is given.
The results of an experimental investigation of iodine laser interaction with Al targets obtained on the laser system PERUN (λ = 1.315 μm, E < 50 J, τ ∼ 350 ps) by means of corpuscular diagnostics, are presented. Ion velocity distributions, angular distributions, and electron temperature were determined. The plasma electron temperature Te ∼ 550 ± 100 eV was weakly dependent on laser intensity in the range Iλ2 ∼ 1014-1015 Wcm-2 μm2. Maximal velocity (energy) for the Al ions was estimated as V ∼ 9 × 107 cm/s (∼ 110 keV) and the maximal measured charge state was z = 13. It was shown that the diameter of the area emitting high energy ions is a few times larger than the focus diameter (80 μm), which indicates a strong influence of lateral heat transport on plasma parameters. The hot electron temperature Te.h was estimated to be in the range 6–10 keV. On the basis of Langmuir probe measurements, the electron temperature of expanded Al plasma at a distance of about 100 cm was estimated to be Te ∼ 3 eV
The interaction of a plasma produced by irradiation of perforated foils with laser pulses was studied. The laser beam of the first harmonics of the iodine laser (λ = 1.315 μm) system PERUN was focused by anf/2 optics (f = 20 cm) on a hole in the foil target of high-Z material. The laser energy and the temporal shape of the pulses were monitored both before and behind the hole. Foils of two different materials (Pb, Cu) were used, and a series of hole diameters 2rH ranging from 100 μm to 500 μm were tested. The diameter of the laser focal spot 2r0 was about 150 μm. For hole diameters smaller than 300 μm, a shortening of the laser pulse was observed, demonstrating the effect of plasma shutter. The pulse shortening, which depends on the hole diameter, corresponds to the reduction in the pulse energy passing through the hole. An analysis of the experimental data is based on hydrodynamic computations, and the physics of the process is illustrated by a simple analytical model.
The first harmonics beam generated by an iodine laser system was focused by an f/2 optics on an Al foil target. The X-ray output from the laser plasma both in the line and broad-band spectra was registered over an interval around the “ideal” focus. It was found that the maximum X-ray power is not obtained in the focus itself but for a somewhat larger focal spot outside the focus. To explain this phenomena, temperature and density measurements were in addition made. The plasma temperature evaluated from both the line (He-like Al XII resonant line and j, k, l satellites) and broad-band spectra (two foil method) was also measured and found to be largely constant in the vicinity of the focus. The line and broad-band temperatures differ, the broad-band temperature being about 25% higher. The electron density was equally determined using an intercombination line.
A construction and exploitation of a comparatively large I photodissociation laser system (Perun) is reported. This system was constructed in cooperation between the Institute of Physics of Czechoslovak Academy of Science in Prague and the Lebedev Institute of Physics of Soviet Academy of Science in Moscow. The laser produces subnanosecond pulses of maximum 50 J and 0·5 ns in duration. Although the pumping time by Xe flashlamps is long enough for an acoustic disturbance released in the active medium to introduce an optical inhomogeneity across the whole cross section of the laser tube, the radiation can be focused in a focal spot of a power density exceeding 1014 W/cm2, enough for meaningful laser target experiments both for a laser plasma production or a modification of solid surfaces. The repetition time of the shots is about 10 min.
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