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A chloroacetamide herbicide by application timing factorial experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Mississippi to investigate chloroacetamide use in a dicamba-based Palmer amaranth management program in cotton production. Herbicides used were S-metolachlor or acetochlor, and application timings were preemergence, preemergence followed by (fb) early postemergence, preemergence fb late postemergence, early postemergence alone, late postemergence alone, and early postemergence fb late postemergence. Dicamba was included in all preemergence applications, and dicamba plus glyphosate was included with all postemergence applications. Differences in cotton and weed response due to chloroacetamide type were minimal, and cotton injury 14 d after LP application was less than 10% for all application timings. Late-season weed control was reduced up to 30 and 53% if chloroacetamide application occurred PRE or LP only, respectively. Late-season weed densities were minimized if multiple applications were used instead of a single application. Cotton height was reduced by up to 23% if a single application was made LP relative to other application timings. Chloroacetamide application at any timing except PRE alone minimized late season weed biomass. Yield was maximized by any treatment involving multiple applications or EP alone whereas applications PRE or LP alone resulted in up to 56 and 27% yield losses, respectively. While no yield loss was reported by delaying the first of sequential applications until EP, foregoing a PRE application is not advisable given the multiple factors that may delay timely POST applications such as inclement weather.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
The rise in social inequality and the emergence of the new nationalism place us in a new world. The postwar system of social cohesion is gone; the potential for new disruptions to capitalism has grown. So we write this chapter with a good deal of fear and trembling for two reasons. First, the capacities of many advanced capitalist states to effectively manage their economies continue to diminish.
Adam Smith died in 1790, just before the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. The long peace of the nineteenth century that followed rested on an implicit geopolitical deal. For decades after the Congress of Vienna of 1815 had established a framework for peace, no one wanted to challenge Britain, in part because they were exhausted from war but also because doing so might upset the balance of power in Europe and strengthen one’s rivals. Furthermore, the world’s leading economies subscribed to the gold standard – fixing their currencies to the price of gold – thereby ensuring a stable international payments system that steadied capitalism. The hope was that trade would now replace military conquest, and that peace and prosperity would be assured. The first half of the twentieth century crushed that hope. It was a time of war and economic catastrophe.
As sociologists, we view capitalism and its optimal needs differently from conventional economists. Ironically, however, our own perspective draws on the work of well-known early economists – sociologically astute, but often misunderstood or neglected in economics today. Those earlier economists provide us with most of the important building blocks for our argument. They also remind us that the foundations of economics are fundamentally different from the widespread contemporary belief that markets work best when political and social forces do not interfere with them. The historical perspective suggests that this contemporary view is wrong and that putting it into practice has caused serious economic damage.
Let us recall three events that challenged the political status quo in the early part of this century. The first took place in 2000, when Danes were asked in a national referendum whether they wished to join the European Monetary Union, abandoning Denmark’s national currency, the krone, for the euro. Every element of the political elite – both left and right – as well as most intellectuals and the media were in favor of a “yes” vote. But the vote failed, beaten by a vote of “no” most common among less-educated Danish men living outside metropolitan Copenhagen. This was a harbinger of things to come. The second event saw protestors commandeer Zuccotti Park in lower Manhattan’s financial district on a crisp fall day in 2011, setting up a makeshift tent city to protest economic inequality in the United States.
Storm clouds began to threaten the postwar political economy rather quickly. By the late 1960s, war-torn countries had made great strides in revitalizing their economies, while competition was heating up in world markets, challenging the United States’ economic primacy. Then, the price of oil skyrocketed in the 1970s, driving production costs higher. These years came to be dominated by stagflation – a toxic mix of inflation, sluggish economic growth, and high unemployment. On top of that, thanks to dramatic improvements in telecommunications and transportation, consumer demands began to change rapidly, and manufacturers raced to keep up. In 1909, Henry Ford had promised his customers that they could buy a Model T in any color so long as it was black; by 1973, the Ford Mustang came in three body styles, with five engine options, a choice of three transmissions, and more than a dozen colors.
We began this book by presenting the ideas of great economists that have been unduly neglected. Smith recognized that capitalism works best when people seek to catch those above them on the societal escalator. That requires a sense that they are at least on the escalator – something stressed too by Polanyi, who was well aware of the dangers that could follow if people were to feel themselves to be left out altogether. Keynes wanted the state to smooth out capitalism’s instabilities – notably, persistent unemployment – which often stemmed from the creative destruction that Schumpeter described. Hirschman understood that another way of ensuring that capitalism worked for everyone was to provide voice to all of its stakeholders.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
From unemployment to Brexit to climate change, capitalism is in trouble and ill-prepared to cope with the challenges of the coming decades. How did we get here? While contemporary economists and policymakers tend to ignore the political and social dimensions of capitalism, some of the great economists of the past - Adam Smith, Friedrich List, John Maynard Keynes, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi and Albert Hirschman - did not make the same mistake. Leveraging their insights, sociologists John L. Campbell and John A. Hall trace the historical development of capitalism as a social, political, and economic system throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. They draw comparisons across eras and around the globe to show that there is no inevitable logic of capitalism. Rather, capitalism's performance depends on the strength of nation-states, the social cohesion of capitalist societies, and the stability of the international system - three things that are in short supply today.
Estimated levels of microbial burden on hospital environmental surfaces vary substantially among published studies. Cultures obtained during a cluster-controlled crossover trial of a quaternary ammonium (Quat) disinfectant versus an improved hydrogen peroxide (IHP) disinfectant provided additional data on the amount of microbial burden on selected surfaces.
RODAC plates containing D/E neutralizing agar were used to sample a convenience sample of 5–8 high-touch surfaces in patient rooms on 2 medical wards, an intensive care unit, and a step-down unit at a large hospital. Before routine daily cleaning, samples were obtained in varying rooms over an 11-month period. RODAC plates (1 per surface sampled) were incubated for 72 hours, and aerobic colony counts per plate (ACCs) were determined. Statistical analysis was used to determine the potential impact on ACCs of study period, cleaning compliance rate, disinfectant used, ward, surface sampled, and isolation room status.
Overall, 590 cultures were obtained on Quat wards and 589 on IHP wards. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that mean ACCs differed significantly by site (P < .001), type of ward (P < .001), isolation room status (P = .039), and study period (P = .036). The highest mean ACCs per RODAC plate were on toilet seats (112.8), bedside rails (92.0), and bathroom grab bars (79.5).
The combination of factors analyzed revealed that estimating microbial burden is complex and is affected by multiple factors. Additional studies should evaluate individual sites, ward types, cleaning and disinfection practices, and isolation room status.
To determine the changes in severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serologic status and SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in healthcare workers (HCWs) over 6-months of follow-up.
Prospective cohort study.
Setting and participants:
HCWs in the Chicago area.
Cohort participants were recruited in May and June 2020 for baseline serology testing (Abbott anti-nucleocapsid IgG) and were then invited for follow-up serology testing 6 months later. Participants completed monthly online surveys that assessed demographics, medical history, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and exposures to SARS-CoV-2. The electronic medical record was used to identify SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity during follow-up. Serologic conversion and SARS-CoV-2 infection or possible reinfection rates (cases per 10,000 person days) by antibody status at baseline and follow-up were assessed.
In total, 6,510 HCWs were followed for a total of 1,285,395 person days (median follow-up, 216 days). For participants who had baseline and follow-up serology checked, 285 (6.1%) of the 4,681 seronegative participants at baseline seroconverted to positive at follow-up; 138 (48%) of the 263 who were seropositive at baseline were seronegative at follow-up. When analyzed by baseline serostatus alone, 519 (8.4%) of 6,194 baseline seronegative participants had a positive PCR after baseline serology testing (4.25 per 10,000 person days). Of 316 participants who were seropositive at baseline, 8 (2.5%) met criteria for possible SARS-CoV-2 reinfection (ie, PCR positive >90 days after baseline serology) during follow-up, a rate of 1.27 per 10,000 days at risk. The adjusted rate ratio for possible reinfection in baseline seropositive compared to infection in baseline seronegative participants was 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.13–0.53).
Seropositivity in HCWs is associated with moderate protection from future SARS-CoV-2 infection.