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Depressed patients with early traumatic experiences may represent a clinically distinct subtype with worse clinical outcome. Since early traumatic experiences alter the development of systems that regulate the stress response, certain personality features may influence coping strategies, putting individuals with depression and a history of early traumatic experiences at greater risk of suicidal behaviour.
To determine whether impulsivity mediates the relationship between early traumatic experiences and suicidal behaviour in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
The sample included 190 patients [mean age (SD)=53.71 (10.37); females: 66.3%], with current MDD. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) were used to assess childhood and adulthood adverse life events and impulsivity. We developed mediation models by bootstrap sampling methods.
81 (42.6%) patients had previous suicide attempts (SA). CTQ-SF-Total and BIS-11-Total scores were higher in MDD patients with previous SA. Correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between the CTQ-SF-Total and BIS-11-Total, CTQ-SF-Total and HDRS-Total, and BIS-11-Total and HDRS-Total scores. Regression models found that CTQ-SF-Total, BIS-11-Total, and HDRS-Total scores were associated with SA. Mediation analyses further revealed the association between CTQ-SF-Total and SA was mediated by the indirect effect of the BIS-11-Total score (b=0.007, 95% CI=0.001, 0.015), after controlling for sex, HDRS-Total, and LTE-Total.
Impulsivity could mediate the influence of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour. This will help understand the role of risk factors in suicidal behaviour and aid in the development of prevention interventions focused on modifiable mediators when risk factors are non-modifiable.
Suicidal behavior has a great impact on world public health. The literature describes the possible existence of an association between neurobiological, clinical and cognitive factors in suicidal behavior.
To determine the possible relationship between clinical variables (history of abuse/maltreatment in childhood), psychopathology (impulsivity traits) and cognitive (decision-making) with a history of suicide attempt and/or current suicidal idea in patients with major depressive disorder.
Cross-sectional study in a sample of adult patients with major depressive disorder in which two types of comparisons are made. In the first case, two groups were compared based on the presence or absence of history of suicide attempt. In the second case, two groups were compared based on the presence or absence of suicidal ideation in the same sample of patients. Finally, sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables were evaluated in that population sample.
When the joint influence of sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive characteristics are present, it can be said that being single/divorced/separated, a history of sexual abuse in childhood and an alteration in decision-making, specifically a lower number of choices of deck D in the IGT test, are associated with a higher probability of a personal history of suicide attempt. While a higher score on the Barrat impulsivity scale is associated with a greater probability of presenting current suicidal ideation once the influence of sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables has been taken into account.
Different sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive factors are associated with the presence of a history of suicide attempt and/or current suicidal ideation.
Hooliganism has become recognised by governments and the media as a serious problem since the 1960s. Scientists have been offering explanations of football hooliganism mainly from a psychosocial approach.
The primary objective of this study was to collect measurable data of violence risk in football hooligans.
We used the Plutchik and van Praag's Past Feelings and Acts of Violence (PFAV) Scale to measure the risk of violent acts in three samples: hooligans from a professional football team, standard football supporters, and a control sample.
We found an increased risk of violent behaviour in all the individuals from the hooligan sample, but not in the standard supporters' sample.
Football hooligans have extremely high risk of committing violent acts. Standard football supporters are not more violent than general population.
An expanding body of research suggests that childhood trauma and adverse experiences can lead to a variety of negative health outcomes, including substance abuse, depressive disorders, and attempted suicide among adolescents and adults. Alcoholism, depressed affect, and illicit drug use, which are strongly associated with such experiences, appear to partially mediate this relationship as observed in population studies.
We have tested the association between early trauma and suicide attempts in a sample of suicide attempters from the Eureca International Project and a matched healthy control sample.
We have studied the prevalence of childhood stressful events compared with healthy controls in a multicentre sample of 791 suicide attempters (SA) and 630 healthy controls (C), we have measured childhood parental neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Chi2 tests were performed using SPSS v15.0.
A significant increase in prevalence of childhood trauma was found in the suicide attempters sample for all types of trauma: childhood physical abuse: 25.3% (SA) vs. 11.1% (C) (Chi2 test: 120,108 P = 0.000); childhood sexual abuse: 18.2% (SA) vs. 2.4% (C) (Chi2 test: 88,212 P = 0.000); parental neglect 25.3% (SA) vs. 1.1% (C) (Chi2 test: 164,910 P = 0.000); childhood emotional abuse: 34.9% (SA) vs. 5.6% (C) (Chi2 test: 176,546 P = 0.000).
Suicide attempters were increasingly overrepresented compared with controls if experiencing more than 1 trauma: represented 77% of the sample who suffered 1 type of childhood trauma vs. more than 90% of the sample with 2 or more types of trauma.
A powerful graded relationship exists between adverse childhood experiences and risk of attempted suicide.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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