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The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
As a typical plasma-based optical element that can sustain ultra-high light intensity, plasma density gratings driven by intense laser pulses have been extensively studied for wide applications. Here, we show that the plasma density grating driven by two intersecting driver laser pulses is not only nonuniform in space but also varies over time. Consequently, the probe laser pulse that passes through such a dynamic plasma density grating will be depolarized, that is, its polarization becomes spatially and temporally variable. More importantly, the laser depolarization may spontaneously take place for crossed laser beams if their polarization angles are arranged properly. The laser depolarization by a dynamic plasma density grating may find application in mitigating parametric instabilities in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion.
There is mixed evidence regarding the direction of a potential association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide mortality.
This is the first population-based study to account for both PTSD diagnosis and PTSD symptom severity simultaneously in the examination of suicide mortality.
Retrospective study that included all US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patients with a PTSD diagnosis and at least one symptom severity assessment using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) between 1 October 1999 and 31 December 2018 (n = 754 197). We performed multivariable proportional hazards regression models using exposure groups defined by level of PTSD symptom severity to estimate suicide mortality rates. For patients with multiple PCL scores, we performed additional models using exposure groups defined by level of change in PTSD symptom severity. We assessed suicide mortality using the VA/Department of Defense Mortality Data Repository.
Any level of PTSD symptoms above the minimum threshold for symptomatic remission (i.e. PCL score >18) was associated with double the suicide mortality rate at 1 month after assessment. This relationship decreased over time but patients with moderate to high symptoms continued to have elevated suicide rates. Worsening PTSD symptoms were associated with a 25% higher long-term suicide mortality rate. Among patients with improved PTSD symptoms, those with symptomatic remission had a substantial and sustained reduction in the suicide rate compared with those without symptomatic remission (HR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.88).
Ameliorating PTSD can reduce risk of suicide mortality, but patients must achieve symptomatic remission to attain this benefit.
Based on erosion coupon tests, a sand erosion model for 17-4PH steel was developed. The developed erosion model was validated against the results of compressor erosion tests from a generic rig and from other researchers. A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the test rig was built, a user-defined function was developed to implement the erosion model into the ANSYS CFD software, and the turbulent, two-phase flow-field in multiple reference frames was solved. The simulation results are consistent with the test results from the compressor rig and with experimental findings from other researchers. Specifically, the sand erosion blunts the leading edge, sharpens the trailing edge and increases pressure-surface roughness. The comparisons between the experimental observations and numerical results as well as a quantitative comparison with three other sand erosion models indicate that the developed sand erosion model is adequate for erosion prediction of engine components made of 17-4PH steel.
American Indian and Alaska Native peoples (AI/AN) have a disproportionately high rate of obesity, but little is known about the social determinants of obesity among older AI/AN. Thus, our study assessed social determinants of obesity in AI/AN aged ≥ 50 years.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using multivariate generalised linear mixed models to identify social determinants associated with the risk of being classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2). Analyses were conducted for the total study population and stratified by median county poverty level.
Indian Health Service (IHS) data for AI/AN who used IHS services in FY2013.
Totally, 27 696 AI/AN aged ≥ 50 years without diabetes.
Mean BMI was 29·8 ± 6·6 with 43 % classified as obese. Women were more likely to be obese than men, and younger ages were associated with higher obesity risk. While having Medicaid coverage was associated with lower odds of obesity, private health insurance was associated with higher odds. Living in areas with lower rates of educational attainment and longer drive times to primary care services were associated with higher odds of obesity. Those who lived in a county where a larger percentage of people had low access to a grocery store were significantly less likely to be obese.
Our findings contribute to the understanding of social determinants of obesity among older AI/AN and highlight the need to investigate AI/AN obesity, including longitudinal studies with a life course perspective to further examine social determinants of obesity in older AI/AN.
The long-distance stable transport of relativistic electron beams (REBs) in plasmas is studied by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Theoretical analysis shows that the beam transport is mainly influenced by three transverse instabilities, where the excitation of self-modulation instability, and the suppression of the filamentation instability and the hosing instability are important to realize the beam stable transport. By modulating the transport parameters such as the electron density ratio, the relativistic Lorentz factor, the beam envelopes and the density profiles, the relativistic bunches having a smooth density profile and a length of several plasma wave periods can suppress the beam-plasma instabilities and propagate in plasmas for long distances with small energy losses. The results provide a reference for the research of long-distance and stable transport of REBs, and would be helpful for new particle beam diagnosis technology and space active experiments.
A practical method to evaluate quantitatively the uniformity of fuel/air mixing is essential for research and development of advanced low-emission combustion systems. Typically, this is characterised by measuring an unmixedness parameter or a uniformity index. An alternative approach, based on the fuel/air equivalence ratio distribution, is proposed and demonstrated in a simple methane/air venturi mixer. This approach has two main advantages: it is correlated with the fuel/air mixture combustion temperature, and the maximum temperature variation caused by fuel/air non-uniformity can be estimated. Because of these, it can be used as a criterion to check fuel/air mixing quality, or as a target for fuel/air mixer design with acceptable maximum temperature variation. For the situations where the fuel/air distribution non-uniqueness issue becomes important for fuel/air mixing check or mixer design, an additional statistical supplementary criterion should also be used.
Olanzapine effectively treats schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder (BD-I); however, its use is hindered by significant weight gain. A combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) is in development to provide the efficacy of olanzapine while mitigating olanzapine-associated weight gain through opioid-receptor blockade. Here, we summarize OLZ/SAM clinical data.
The OLZ/SAM development program consists of 18 phase 1–3 clinical studies evaluating antipsychotic and weight mitigation efficacy of OLZ/SAM, along with pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability. Safety evaluation also included metabolic laboratory assessments.
OLZ/SAM significantly improved psychotic symptoms (measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale); improvements were similar to that observed with olanzapine vs placebo. OLZ/SAM resulted in significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. Additionally, 2 long-term phase 3 extension studies confirmed the durability of antipsychotic effect, as well as stabilization of weight and metabolic parameters in those continuing treatment. Supporting the potential use of OLZ/SAM in BD-I, OLZ/SAM or olanzapine resulted in bioequivalent olanzapine plasma concentrations, and OLZ/SAM did not affect lithium or valproate pharmacokinetics. OLZ/SAM treatment had no clinically relevant effects on ECG parameters (including QTc interval). OLZ/SAM and olanzapine safety were similar, except for reduced weight gain with OLZ/SAM; no additional safety risks were identified.
Data across 18 OLZ/SAM studies in >1600 subjects support an antipsychotic efficacy and safety profile for OLZ/SAM that is similar to olanzapine, with significantly less weight gain than olanzapine. OLZ/SAM is a potential new treatment for schizophrenia and BD-I patients needing efficacious long-term treatment with reduced risk of weight gain.
Efficient photosynthesis requires a balance of ATP and NADPH production/consumption in chloroplasts, and the exportation of reducing equivalents from chloroplasts is important for balancing stromal ATP/NADPH ratio. Here, we showed that the overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 on the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria can streamline the production and consumption of reducing equivalents in these two organelles, respectively. A higher capacity of consumption of reducing equivalents in mitochondria can indirectly help chloroplasts to balance the ATP/NADPH ratio in stroma and recycle NADP+, the electron acceptors of the linear electron flow (LEF). A higher rate of ATP and NADPH production from the LEF, a higher capacity of carbon fixation by the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle and a greater consumption of NADH in mitochondria enhance photosynthesis in the chloroplasts, ATP production in the mitochondria and sucrose synthesis in the cytosol and eventually boost plant growth and seed yields in the overexpression lines.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our study will integrate state-of-the-art methods in pathogen genomics, epidemiology, and geospatial analysis to identify both host- and pathogen-factors driving the MDR-TB transmission and the study outcome can inform the design of targeted interventions OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses serious challenges for the global eradication of tuberculosis. Recent research has shown that transmission is now the dominant driver of MDR-TB. However, our limited understanding of where and among whom MDR-TB is transmitted hampers efforts to control person-to-person spread. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used several analytic approaches to characterize the dynamics of MDR-TB transmission in Shanghai, China. We identified all culture-confirmed MDR cases between 2009-2016 in the city and 1) estimated individual-level risk factors for MDR disease; 2) mapped the TB cases by their home addresses and used a Bayesian spatial disease mapping method to identify regions with an elevated risk of MDR-TB; and 3) we sequenced all MDR isolates to understand whether transmission explained variance in risk that was not attributable to the distribution of individual or location-specific risk variates. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There were 1034 MDR-TB cases among 16,315 culture-confirmed TB cases during the study period. Bayesian disease mapping identified spatial heterogeneity of MDR-TB and determined four hotspots with an elevated risk of MDR-TB, none of which were fully explained by individual or regional-covariates (Figure 1). Sequencing revealed that more than 40% of the MDR-TB strains were in genomic clusters, indicating recent MDR-TB transmission. Most importantly, MDR-TB cases in three of the four large clades (>8 isolates) were spatially concentrated in three strain-specific hotspots (Figure 2). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: With the combination of traditional epidemiological tools, geographical, and genomic methods, this study revealed multiple loci of transmission of specific MDR-TB clades within a single city. Identification of where and among whom MDR-TB is transmitted can inform the design of targeted interventions.
Suicide risk is high in the 30 days after discharge from psychiatric hospital, but knowledge of the profiles of high-risk patients remains limited.
To examine sex-specific risk profiles for suicide in the 30 days after discharge from psychiatric hospital, using machine learning and Danish registry data.
We conducted a case–cohort study capturing all suicide cases occurring in the 30 days after psychiatric hospital discharge in Denmark from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2015 (n = 1205). The comparison subcohort was a 5% random sample of all persons born or residing in Denmark on 1 January 1995, and who had a first psychiatric hospital admission between 1995 and 2015 (n = 24 559). Predictors included diagnoses, surgeries, prescribed medications and demographic information. The outcome was suicide death recorded in the Danish Cause of Death Registry.
For men, prescriptions for anxiolytics and drugs used in addictive disorders interacted with other characteristics in the risk profiles (e.g. alcohol-related disorders, hypnotics and sedatives) that led to higher risk of postdischarge suicide. In women, there was interaction between recurrent major depression and other characteristics (e.g. poisoning, low income) that led to increased risk of suicide. Random forests identified important suicide predictors: alcohol-related disorders and nicotine dependence in men and poisoning in women.
Our findings suggest that accurate prediction of suicide during the high-risk period immediately after psychiatric hospital discharge may require a complex evaluation of multiple factors for men and women.
This work examines the μ(I) relation that describes the effective friction coefficient μ of a dense granular flow as a function of flow inertial number I, at the center of a rotating drum from its flow onset to steady state using DEM. We want to see how the internal friction coefficient of an accelerating flow may be predicted so that the associated tangential stress can be estimated with the proper knowledge of the normal stress. Under the three investigated drum speeds (3, 4.5 and 6 rpm), the bulk normal stress, σn(y), is found to be a consistent linear depth profile throughout the flow development with a slope degraded from the hydrostatic value, Ph(y), due to lateral wall friction. With the discovery of a non-constant depth-decaying effective wall friction coefficient, we derive analytically a wall-degradation factor K(h) to give σn(y)= K(h)Ph(y). The depth profile of tangential stress, however, varies in time from a concave shape upon acceleration, τa(y), to a more linear trend at the steady state, τss(y). Hence, the μa-Ia profile (with μa=τ/σn) upon flow acceleration offsets from the steady μss(Iss) relation. A pseudo-steady acceleration modification number, ΔI, is proposed to shift the inertial number in the acceleration phase to I* = Ia+ΔI so that the μa-I* data converge to μss(Iss). This finding shall allow us to predict a transient tangential stress by τa(y) = μss(I*)K(y)Ph(y) using the well-accepted knowledge of steady flow rheology, hydrostatic pressure, and the currently developed wall-degradation factor.
The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015–2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and calibration factors calculated to determine predicted estimates from the GUMLi EAT FFQ. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (κ) and exact quartile categorisation. Calibration was calculated using linear regression models on 24HR, adjusted for sex and treatment group. Nutrient intakes were significantly correlated between the GUMLi EAT FFQ and 24HR at both time points. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated Pearson correlations ranged from 0·3 (fibre) to 0·8 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·3 (Ca) to 0·7 (Fe) at 12 months. Weighted κ for the quartiles ranged from 0·2 (Zn) to 0·6 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·1 (total fat) to 0·5 (Fe) at 12 months. Exact agreement ranged from 30 to 74 %. Calibration factors predicted up to 56 % of the variation in the 24HR at 9 months and 44 % at 12 months. The GUMLi EAT FFQ remained a useful tool for ranking nutrient intakes with similar estimated validity compared with other FFQ used in children under 2 years.
There is limited information concerning the viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in aerosols deposited on environmental surfaces and the effectiveness of infection prevention and control procedures on eliminating SARS-CoV-2 contamination in hospital settings. We examined the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in aerosol samples and on environmental surfaces in a hospital designated for treating severe COVID-19 patients. Aerosol samples were collected by a microbial air sampler, and environmental surfaces were sampled using sterile premoistened swabs at multiple sites. Ninety surface swabs and 135 aerosol samples were collected. Only two swabs, sampled from the inside of a patient's mask, were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. All other swabs and aerosol samples were negative for the virus. Our study indicated that strict implementation of infection prevention and control procedures was highly effective in eliminating aerosol and environmental borne SARS-CoV-2 RNA thereby reducing the risk of cross-infection in hospitals.
Soybean meal is rich in soybean isoflavones, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer functions in humans and animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of soybean isoflavones on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and antioxidative properties in pigs. A total of 72 weaned piglets (7.45 ± 0.13 kg; 36 males and 36 females) were allocated into three treatments and fed corn-soybean meal (C-SBM), corn-soy protein concentrate (C-SPC) or C-SPC supplemented with equal levels of the isoflavones found in the C-SBM diet (C-SPC + ISF) for a 72-day trial. Each treatment had six replicates and four piglets per replicate, half male and half female. On day 42, one male pig from each replicate was selected and euthanized to collect intestinal samples. The results showed that compared to pigs fed the C-SPC diet, pigs fed the C-SBM and C-SPC + ISF diets had higher BW on day 72 (P < 0.05); pigs fed the C-SBM diet had significantly higher average daily gain (ADG) during days 14 to 28 (P < 0.05), with C-SPC + ISF being intermediate; pigs fed the C-SBM diet tended to have higher ADG during days 42 to 72 (P = 0.063), while pigs fed the C-SPC + ISF diet had significantly higher ADG during days 42 to 72 (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared to pigs fed the C-SPC diet, pigs fed the C-SBM diet tended to have greater villus height (P = 0.092), while pigs fed the C-SPC + ISF diet had significantly greater villus height (P < 0.05); pigs fed the C-SBM and C-SPC + ISF diets had significantly increased villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05). Compared with the C-SPC diet, dietary C-SPC + ISF tended to increase plasma superoxide dismutase activity on days 28 (P = 0.085) and 42 (P = 0.075) and reduce plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) content on day 42 (P = 0.089), as well as significantly decreased jejunal mucosa MDA content on day 42 (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference in the expression of tight junction genes among the three groups was found (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that a long-term exposure to soybean isoflavones enhances the growth performance, protects the intestinal morphology and improves the antioxidative properties in pigs.
The meat quality of chicken is an important factor affecting the consumer’s health. It was hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) could be effectively deposited in chicken, by incorporating antioxidation of soybean isoflavone (SI), which led to improved quality of chicken meat for good health of human beings. Effects of partial or complete dietary substitution of lard (LA) with linseed oil (LO), with or without SI on growth performance, biochemical indicators, meat quality, fatty acid profiles, lipid-related health indicators and gene expression of breast muscle were examined in chickens. A total of 900 males were fed a corn–soybean meal diet supplemented with 4% LA, 2% LA + 2% LO and 4% LO and the latter two including 30 mg SI/kg (2% LA + 2% LO + SI and 4% LO + SI) from 29 to 66 days of age; each of the five dietary treatments included six replicates of 30 birds. Compared with the 4% LA diet, dietary 4% LO significantly increased the feed efficiency and had no negative effect on objective indices related to meat quality; LO significantly decreased plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol (TCH); abdominal fat percentage was significantly decreased in birds fed the 4% LO and 4% LO + SI diets. Chickens with LO diets resulted in higher contents of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), EPA (C20:5n-3) and total n-3 PUFA, together with a lower content of palmitic acid (C16:0), lignoceric acid (C24:0), saturated fatty acids and n-6:n-3 ratio in breast muscle compared to 4% LA diet (P < 0.05); they also significantly decreased atherogenic index, thrombogenic index and increased the hypocholesterolemic to hypercholesterolemic ratio. Adding SI to the LO diets enhanced the contents of EPA and DHA (C22:6n-3), plasma total superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione and muscle GSH content, while decreased plasma total triglyceride and TCH and malondialdehyde content in plasma and breast muscle compared to its absence (P < 0.05). Expression in breast muscle of fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), FADS2, elongase 2 (ELOVL2) and ELOVL5 genes were significantly higher with the LO diets including SI than with the 4% LA diet. Significant interactions existed between LO level and inclusion of SI on EPA and TCH contents. These findings indicate that diet supplemented with LO combined with SI is an effective alternative when optimizing the nutritional value of chicken meat for human consumers.
There seems to be geographical differences in decisions about breast conserving surgery (BCS) in breast cancer patients. This study was to evaluate patients’ attitude to BCS and to assess the factors affecting cancer practice in West China.
A structured questionnaire was distributed to 184 patients, eliciting information about the patients’ characteristics, occupation, education, family life, recognition of illness, knowledge about BCS, the main means of gaining surgery information, selecting surgery approaches, preferences to breast reservation.
In all, 163 patients completed the questionnaire. The results indicated that only 7.4% of patients received BCS and 23% of the remaining patients desired to have BCS and the affecting factors were significantly associated with their family life, recognition of illness and the main means of gaining surgery information (P < 0.05). No associations were between BCS selecting and the other variables studied. The most frequent reasons for selecting BCS were keeping the female shape and improving quality of life (71%), the second most were postoperative recovery, minimal influence of physical function (47%) and patients’ knowledge about BCS (42%). The most frequent reasons for not selecting BCS were uncertainty about BCS results and worry about recurrence (81%), the second most was the elderly age unnecessary for BCS (40%).
The findings indicate that breast cancer patients in West China do not take BCS as the first choice as the best treatment method. It is warranted that further study of more patients, attitude of patients’ partners and physicians to BCS.
White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) diseases from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies respectively, while the empirical evidences about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders are still limited.
25 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 18 patients with bipolar mania were recruited from the in-patient unit of the Mental Health Centre, West China Hospital, China.
Patients were diagnosed according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Version IV (DSM- IV). 30 healthy controls were recruited from the community by means of leaflets distributed throughout Chengdu city.
This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients from Chengdu, China with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania, as well as in normal controls. The differences in FA were measured by use of voxel-based analysis.
Reduced FA was found in the left posterior corona radiate (PCR) in patients with bipolar mania and paranoid schizophrenia compared to the controls. Patients with bipolar mania also showed a significant reduction in FA in right posterior corona radiate and in right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR).
Common abnormalities in the left PCR might imply an overlap in white matter pathology of both diseases and might be related to the shared risk factors for both disorders.
To analyze baseline scores on individual items of the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) in depressed outpatients by age groups approximating menopausal status.
This post-hoc, pooled analysis was conducted with populations from 7 double-blind, placebo-controlled desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) trials in patients with major depressive disorder. The age groups, chosen as a proxy for pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal status, respectively, were 18-39, 40-55, and >55 years of age. Data from male patients were used to differentiate effects due to menopausal status from those related to age. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustments was used to compare differences in baseline scores on individual HAM-D17 items.
A total of 1203 women (18-39 years [n=525]; 40-55 years [n=513]; >55 [n=165]) and 780 men (18-39 years [n=321]; 40-55 years [n=354]; >55 [n=105]) were included in this analysis. When analyzing these data by gender, women had significantly higher scores on HAM-D17 total (P=0.002), anxiety (P<0.001) and retardation subscales (P<0.001), and the somatic–anxiety (P<0.001), genital (P<0.001), and hypochondriasis (P=0.007) items. A significant age effect was observed for the HAM-D17 insomnia scale (P=0.004), and guilt (P<0.001), all insomnia items (P≤0.001), somatic–general (P<0.001), genital (P=0.019), and hypochondriasis (P≤0.001) individual items. An age effect among women was observed on the guilt (P=0.017), all insomnia items (P<0.05), somatic–general (P=0.022), and hypochondriasis (P=0.001) items.
Women in age groups approximating peri- and postmenopausal status had significantly higher baseline scores than younger women for the hypochondriasis, insomnia–middle and insomnia–late items of the HAM-D17.