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Over a span of 1000 years beginning around 800CE, the people of the Pacific Islands undertook a remarkable period of voyaging, political evolution, and cross-cultural interactions. Polynesian navigators encountered previously uninhabited lands, as well as already inhabited islands and the coast of the Americas. Island societies saw epic sagas of political competition and intrigue, documented through oral traditions and the monuments and artefacts recovered through archaeology. European entry into the region added a new episode of interaction with strange people from over the horizon. These histories provide an important cross-cultural perspective for the concept of 'the Middle Ages' from outside of the usual Old World focus.
After briefly sketching common-morality principlism, as presented in Principles of Biomedical Ethics, this paper responds to two recent sets of challenges to this framework. The first challenge claims that medical ethics is autonomous and unique and thus not a form of, or justified or guided by, a common morality or by any external morality or moral theory. The second challenge denies that there is a common morality and insists that futile efforts to develop common-morality approaches to bioethics limit diversity and prevent needed moral change. This paper argues that these two critiques fundamentally fail because they significantly misunderstand their target and because their proposed alternatives have major deficiencies and encounter insurmountable problems.
Constraining patterns of growth using directly observable and quantifiable characteristics can reveal a wealth of information regarding the biology of the Ediacara biota—the oldest macroscopic, complex community-forming organisms in the fossil record. However, these rely on individuals captured at an instant in time at various growth stages, and so different interpretations can be derived from the same material. Here we leverage newly discovered and well-preserved Dickinsonia costata Sprigg, 1947 from South Australia, combined with hundreds of previously described specimens, to test competing hypotheses for the location of module addition. We find considerable variation in the relationship between the total number of modules and body size that cannot be explained solely by expansion and contraction of individuals. Patterns derived assuming new modules differentiated at the anterior result in numerous examples in which the oldest module(s) must decrease in size with overall growth, potentially falsifying this hypothesis. Observed polarity as well as the consistent posterior location of defects and indentations support module formation at this end in D. costata. Regardless, changes in repeated units with growth share similarities with those regulated by morphogen gradients in metazoans today, suggesting that these genetic pathways were operating in Ediacaran animals.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
We report new specimens of the Plotopteridae from Washington State (USA), an area where these flightless seabirds underwent significant diversification during the late Eocene and Oligocene. To date, five plotopterid species from western Washington have been formally named. Specimens previously assigned to Tonsala buchanani Dyke, Wang, and Habib, 2011 belong to at least two, but probably even three, different species. One of these, the large-sized “Whiskey Creek specimen” from late Eocene deposits mapped as the Makah Formation, is the oldest known plotopterid and is here tentatively assigned to ?Klallamornis clarki Mayr and Goedert, 2016. Another specimen originally referred to T. buchanani is also likely to belong to a different species and is among the most substantial records for North American plotopterids. We formally transfer T. buchanani to the taxon Klallamornis and show that the only unambiguously identified specimen of the species—the holotype—is currently poorly diagnosed from Klallamornis abyssa Mayr and Goedert, 2016, which is from coeval strata of the Pysht Formation. Although the holotype of K. abyssa is larger than that of K. buchanani, there remains a possibility that plotopterids were sexually dimorphic in size. We describe the first ungual phalanx of a plotopterid, which is referred to K. buchanani, and report previously unknown elements of the large ?K. clarki and the first records of this species from the Lincoln Creek Formation. Current data indicate that plotopterids originated in the middle or late Eocene on islands off western North America, and we hypothesize that the radiation of these birds in the North Pacific Basin may have been related to the evolution of kelp forests.
This article explores the shoreline industries (oysters, salt, fish, lime) that emerged along the Laufaushan coast in Hong Kong's New Territories, in the period 1667 to 1978. The shoreline in question was controlled by a local security force, staffed by young men from a nearby lineage. The study draws on ethnographic research carried out by the author and local documents (of village and government origin) gathered on site.
We investigated whether household to clinic distance was a risk factor for death on tuberculosis (TB) treatment in Malawi. Using enhanced TB surveillance data, we recorded all TB treatment initiations and outcomes between 2015 and 2018. Household locations were geolocated, and distances were measured by a straight line or shortest road network. We constructed Bayesian multi-level logistic regression models to investigate associations between distance and case fatality. A total of 479/4397 (10.9%) TB patients died. Greater distance was associated with higher (odds ratio (OR) 1.07 per kilometre (km) increase, 95% credible interval (CI) 0.99–1.16) odds of death in TB patients registered at the referral hospital, but not among TB patients registered at primary clinics (OR 0.98 per km increase, 95% CI 0.92–1.03). Age (OR 1.02 per year increase, 95% CI 1.01–1.02) and HIV-positive status (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.73–2.85) were also associated with higher odds of death. Model estimates were similar for both distance measures. Distance was a risk factor for death among patients at the main referral hospital, likely due to delayed diagnosis and suboptimal healthcare access. To reduce mortality, targeted community TB screening interventions for TB disease and HIV, and expansion of novel sensitive diagnostic tests are required.
This Element serves as a welcome to the Cambridge Elements Genetics in Epilepsy series. The series editors look forward to sharing with you the story of epilepsy genetics through a series of Elements. They will bring together many voices, by text as well as video, to illustrate the history of epilepsy genetics, the many on-going efforts in the field, and how they hope to address the still unanswered questions that command the attention of all of us and our colleagues across the globe.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
The objective of this study was to investigate changes in serum biomarkers of acute brain injury, including white matter and astrocyte injury during chronic foetal hypoxaemia. We have previously shown histopathological changes in myelination and neuronal density in fetuses with chronic foetal hypoxaemia at a level consistent with CHD.
Mid-gestation foetal sheep (110 ± 3 days gestation) were cannulated and attached to a pumpless, low-resistance oxygenator circuit, and incubated in a sterile fluid environment mimicking the intrauterine environment. Fetuses were maintained with an oxygen delivery of 20–25 ml/kg/min (normoxemia) or 14–16 ml/kg/min (hypoxaemia). Myelin Basic Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein serum levels in the two groups were assessed by ELISA at baseline and at 7, 14, and 21 days of support.
Based on overlapping 95% confidence intervals, there were no statistically significant differences in either Myelin Basic Protein or Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein serum levels between the normoxemic and hypoxemic groups, at any time point. No statistically significant correlations were observed between oxygen delivery and levels of Myelin Basic Protein and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein.
Chronic foetal hypoxaemia during mid-gestation is not associated with elevated serum levels of acute white matter (Myelin Basic Protein) or astrocyte injury (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein), in this model. In conjunction with our previously reported findings, our data support the hypothesis that the brain dysmaturity with impaired myelination found in fetuses with chronic hypoxaemia is caused by disruption of normal developmental pathways rather than by direct cellular injury.
A novel paediatric disease, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children, has emerged during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic.
To describe the short-term evolution of cardiac complications and associated risk factors in patients with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children.
Retrospective single-centre study of confirmed multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children treated from 29 March, 2020 to 1 September, 2020. Cardiac complications during the acute phase were defined as decreased systolic function, coronary artery abnormalities, pericardial effusion, or mitral and/or tricuspid valve regurgitation. Patients with or without cardiac complications were compared with chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum.
Thirty-nine children with median (interquartile range) age 7.8 (3.6–12.7) years were included. Nineteen (49%) patients developed cardiac complications including systolic dysfunction (33%), valvular regurgitation (31%), coronary artery abnormalities (18%), and pericardial effusion (5%). At the time of the most recent follow-up, at a median (interquartile range) of 49 (26–61) days, cardiac complications resolved in 16/19 (84%) patients. Two patients had persistent mild systolic dysfunction and one patient had persistent coronary artery abnormality. Children with cardiac complications were more likely to have higher N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (p = 0.01), higher white blood cell count (p = 0.01), higher neutrophil count (p = 0.02), severe lymphopenia (p = 0.05), use of milrinone (p = 0.03), and intensive care requirement (p = 0.04).
Patients with multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children had a high rate of cardiac complications in the acute phase, with associated inflammatory markers. Although cardiac complications resolved in 84% of patients, further long-term studies are needed to assess if the cardiac abnormalities (transient or persistent) are associated with major cardiac events.
New Zealand has a strategy of eliminating SARS-CoV-2 that has resulted in a low incidence of reported coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in New Zealand via a nationwide serosurvey of blood donors. Samples (n = 9806) were collected over a month-long period (3 December 2020–6 January 2021) from donors aged 16–88 years. The sample population was geographically spread, covering 16 of 20 district health board regions. A series of Spike-based immunoassays were utilised, and the serological testing algorithm was optimised for specificity given New Zealand is a low prevalence setting. Eighteen samples were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, six of which were retrospectively matched to previously confirmed COVID-19 cases. A further four were from donors that travelled to settings with a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure, suggesting likely infection outside New Zealand. The remaining eight seropositive samples were from seven different district health regions for a true seroprevalence estimate, adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity, of 0.103% (95% confidence interval, 0.09–0.12%). The very low seroprevalence is consistent with limited undetected community transmission and provides robust, serological evidence to support New Zealand's successful elimination strategy for COVID-19.
This chapter reviews five decades of research on reactions to mirrors and self-recognition in nonhuman primates, starting with Gallup’s (1970) pioneering experimental demonstration of self-recognition in chimpanzees and its apparent absence in monkeys. Taking a decade-by-decade approach, developments in the field are presented separately for great apes on the one hand, and all other primates on the other (prosimians, monkeys, and so-called lesser apes), considering both empirical studies and theoretical issues. The literature clearly shows that among nonhuman primates the most compelling evidence for something approaching human-like visual self-recognition is seen only in great apes, despite an impressive range of sometimes highly original procedures employed to study many monkey species. In the past decade, research has been shifting from simple questions about whether great apes can self-recognize (now considered beyond doubt), to addressing possible biological bases for individual and species differences in the strength of self-recognition, analysis of possible adaptive functions of the capacity for self-visualization, and searching for evidence of self-recognition in a range of nonprimate species.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders.
We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific.
We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001).
Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.
The influence of surface melt on the flow of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers remains poorly known and in situ observations are few. We use field observations to link surface meltwater forcing to glacier-wide diurnal velocity variations on East Greenland's Helheim Glacier over two summer melt seasons. We observe diurnal variations in glacier speed that peak ~6.5 h after daily maximum insolation and extend from the terminus region to the equilibrium line. Both the amplitude of the diurnal speed variation and its sensitivity to daily melt are largest at the glacier terminus and decrease up-glacier, suggesting that the magnitude of the response is controlled not only by melt input volume and temporal variability, but also by background effective pressure, which approaches zero at the terminus. Our results provide evidence that basal lubrication by meltwater drives diurnal velocity variations at Greenland's marine-terminating glaciers in a similar manner to alpine glaciers and Greenland's land-terminating outlet glaciers.
The crystal structure of daclatasvir dihydrochloride Form N-2 (Daklinza®) has been refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and optimized using density functional theory techniques. Daclatasvir dihydrochloride, Form N-2, crystallizes in space group P1 (#1) with a = 7.54808 (15), b = 9.5566 (5), c = 16.2641 (11) Å, α = 74.0642 (24), β = 84.0026 (13), γ = 70.6322 (5)°, V = 1064.150(11) Å3, and Z = 1. The hydrogen bonds were identified and quantified. Strong N–H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the cations and anions in chains along the a-axis. The powder pattern has been submitted to ICDD® for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File™ (PDF®).
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.