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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Toxic psychoses are growing problem in every-day clinical psychiatric practice. Well-known is fact that use of psychoactive substances, particularly stimulants and cannabis, is associated with psychotic mental disorders.
Differences between psychopathology of schizophrenia and toxic psychotic states are not clear.
To compare psychopathology of patients treated with schizophrenia and toxic psychosis.
Patients with schizophrenia who only temporally used psychoactive substances and patients with non-alcoholic toxic psychoses treated at Psychiatric Clinic of FMUC and UHB in interval of years 2006–2010 were enrolled in present study. Retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical characteristic, especially psychopathological symptoms was conducted.
The authors collected data from medical records of 93 patients treated with non-alcoholic toxic psychoses (TP; 86,0% males, 14,0% females) and 80 patients treated with schizophrenia who only temporally used psychoactive substances (SCH; 93,7% males, 6,3% females) (Tab. 1). Toxic psychotic state was induced mostly by more substances, stimulants and cannabis.
Diagnosis acc. ICD-10
[Diagnostic spectrum in patients with schizophrenia]
The most frequently observed clinical picture in toxic psychoses was paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome. In schizophrenia group was most prominent paranoid form. The authors found and discussed differences between psychopathology in both groups. It seems to that a more specific description and classification of toxic psychoses could be possible.
Stalking, a dangerous persecution, gained attention because of persecution of celebrities by fans suffering by mental disorders. In psychiatry, there is no consensus about the exact definition of stalking, because it can result from many different motivations and constellations of psychopathological symptoms.
The authors provide an overview of the current state of stalking, i.e. dangerous persecution as a new crime in Slovakia. They describe the characteristics of stalkers (persecutors), victims and their interaction in their forensic psychiatric practice.
Search in author's expert reports were conducted on stalking. Analysis of motivations, mechanisms of persecutions and analysis of psychopathological symptoms and mental disorders in stalkers and their victims were made.
Stalkers and their victims are a heterogeneous group with different psychopathology and mental disorders including personality disorders and psychosis. The authors document general principles of forensic psychiatric assessment of stalkers as crime offenders.
Stalking is problem also in forensic psychiatric practice also in Slovakia. Stalkers who suffer from mental disorders require adequate diagnostic and psychiatric treatment also in forced setting.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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