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In this study, we examined the relationship between polygenic liability for depression and number of stressful life events (SLEs) as risk factors for early-onset depression treated in inpatient, outpatient or emergency room settings at psychiatric hospitals in Denmark.
Data were drawn from the iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample, a population-based sample of individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2005. The sample included 18 532 individuals who were diagnosed with depression by a psychiatrist by age 31 years, and a comparison group of 20 184 individuals. Information on SLEs was obtained from nationwide registers and operationalized as a time-varying count variable. Hazard ratios and cumulative incidence rates were estimated using Cox regressions.
Risk for depression increased by 35% with each standard deviation increase in polygenic liability (p < 0.0001), and 36% (p < 0.0001) with each additional SLE. There was a small interaction between polygenic liability and SLEs (β = −0.04, p = 0.0009). The probability of being diagnosed with depression in a hospital-based setting between ages 15 and 31 years ranged from 1.5% among males in the lowest quartile of polygenic liability with 0 events by age 15, to 18.8% among females in the highest quartile of polygenic liability with 4+ events by age 15.
These findings suggest that although there is minimal interaction between polygenic liability and SLEs as risk factors for hospital-treated depression, combining information on these two important risk factors could potentially be useful for identifying high-risk individuals.
Models of foraging behavior often assume that foragers either have no information about the spatial distribution of resources that they seek or, at the other extreme, that they are omniscient with regard to the locations of those resources. This is paralleled by a distinction between the optimization of search behavior (which assumes no knowledge of resource locations) and the pursuit of efficient routes between multiple resource patches (often explicitly considered to be a cognitive task). In this chapter we discuss a variety of movement models that have recently become common in animal ecology. We then use a population of hamadryas baboons as a case study to investigate the relevance of these models to a species possessing spatial memory and learning capabilities.
The global community needs to be aware of the potential psychosocial consequences that may be experienced by health care workers who are actively managing patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). These health care workers are at increased risk for experiencing mood and trauma-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this concept article, strategies are recommended for individual health care workers and hospital leadership to aid in mitigating the risk of PTSD, as well as to build resilience in light of a potential second surge of COVID-19.
Continuous client feedback aims to increase the effectiveness of therapy by emphasizing common factors in treatment across theories that contribute the most to change. In this paper, we present data using two independent measures, which appears to isolate the influence of social desirability on treatment outcomes.
Continuous client feedback data was collected in the Student Health Partnership program and compared with independent data reflecting client function (Child Global Assessment of Function). Data was collected at two times by the same staff using two sampling methods. In the first sample, staff preferentially assigned clients to case (continuous client feedback) and comparison treatment as usual) on the basis of preference and convenience whereas in the second sample assignment to case and comparison was random.
When the data from the two sample frames was compared, systematically different trajectories in the measured outcomes reflecting continuous client feedback and function were obtained with those in sample one being substantially higher than comparisons or population reference values.
The difference in results emerging from the two sampling frames is explained in terms of social desirability. Outcomes for clients were much better in the first sample, where staff choose clients they apparently liked for specialized treatment.
Little is known about the implications of accessing an outdoor range for broiler chicken welfare, particularly in relation to the distance ranged from the shed. Therefore, we monitored individual ranging behaviour of commercial free-range broiler chickens and identified relationships with welfare indicators. The individual ranging behaviour of 305 mixed-sex Ross 308 broiler chickens was tracked on a commercial farm from the second day of range access to slaughter age (from 16 to 42 days of age) by radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The radio frequency identification antennas were placed at pop-holes and on the range at 2.7 and 11.2 m from the home shed to determine the total number of range visits and the distance ranged from the shed. Chickens were categorised into close-ranging (CR) or distant-ranging (DR) categories based on the frequency of visits less than or greater than 2.7 m from the home shed, respectively. Half of the tracked chickens (n=153) were weighed at 7 days of age, and from 14 days of age their body weight, foot pad dermatitis (FPD), hock burn (HB) and gait scores were assessed weekly. The remaining tracked chickens (n=152) were assessed for fear and stress responses before (12 days of age) and after range access was provided (45 days of age) by quantifying their plasma corticosterone response to capture and 12 min confinement in a transport crate followed by behavioural fear responses to a tonic immobility (TI) test. Distant-ranging chickens could be predicted based on lighter BW at 7 and 14 days of age (P=0.05), that is before range access was first provided. After range access was provided, DR chickens weighed less every week (P=0.001), had better gait scores (P=0.01) and reduced corticosterone response to handling and confinement (P<0.05) compared to CR chickens. Longer and more frequent range visits were correlated with the number of visits further from the shed (P<0.01); hence distant ranging was correlated with the amount of range access, and consequently the relationships between ranging frequency, duration and distance were strong. These relationships indicate that longer, more frequent and greater ranging from the home shed was associated with improved welfare. Further research is required to identify whether these relationships between ranging behaviour and welfare are causal.
The chemical composition of a planetary body reflects its starting conditions modified by numerous processes during its formation and geological evolution. Measurements by X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron spectrometers on the MESSENGER spacecraft revealed Mercury’s surface to have surprisingly high abundances of the moderately volatile elements sodium, sulfur, potassium, and chlorine, and a low abundance of iron. This composition rules out some formation models for which high temperatures are expected to have strongly depleted volatiles and indicates that Mercury formed under conditions much more reducing than the other rocky planets of our solar system. Through geochemical modeling and petrologic experiments, the planet’s mantle and core compositions can be estimated from the surface composition and geophysical constraints. The bulk silicate composition of Mercury is likely similar to that of enstatite or metal-rich chondrite meteorites, and the planet’s unusually large core is most likely Si rich, implying that in bulk Mercury is enriched in Fe and Si (and possibly S) relative to the other inner planets. The compositional data for Mercury acquired by MESSENGER will be crucial for quantitatively testing future models of the formation of Mercury and the Solar System as a whole, as well as for constraining the geological evolution of the innermost planet.
Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders.
We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls). All data were based on standard diagnostic criteria. Eight psychiatric disorders were studied: (1) alcohol dependence (AD), (2) anorexia nervosa, (3) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (4) autism spectrum disorder, (5) bipolar disorder, (6) major depressive disorder, (7) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and (8) schizophrenia.
Heritability estimates from sibling data varied from 0.30 for Major Depression to 0.80 for ADHD. The estimates based on the measured genotypes were lower, ranging from 0.10 for AD to 0.28 for OCD, but were significant, and correlated positively (0.19) with national sibling-based estimates. When removing OCD from the data the correlation increased to 0.50.
Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research.
The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) definition was revised as of January 2015 to exclude funguria and lower bacteriuria levels. We evaluated the effect of the CAUTI definition change on NHSN-defined central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) outcomes.
We compared CAUTI and CLABSI NHSN-defined outcomes for calendar years 2014 and 2015 in the adult intensive care units (ICUs) of a single large health system. Changes in the event rates, the associated organisms, and the standardized infection ratio (SIR) were evaluated.
The study included 137 adult ICUs from 65 hospitals. The CAUTI SIR dropped from 1.04 in 2014 to 0.58 in 2015 (−44.2%), while the CLABSI SIR increased from 0.36 in 2014 to 0.47 in 2015 (+30.6%). CAUTI rates dropped 44.8% from 2.09 to 1.15 events per 1,000 device days (P<.001). Gram-positive–associated CAUTI rates dropped 36.7% from 0.34 to 0.22 per 1,000 device days (P=.007). CLABSI rates increased 27.1% from 0.71 to 0.90 per 1,000 device days (P=.027). Candida-associated CLABSI increased by 91.1% from 0.104 to 0.198 per 1,000 device days (P=.012), and Enterococcus-associated CLABSI increased by 121.6% from 0.071 to 0.16 per 1,000 device days (P=.008).
The revised CAUTI definition led to a large reduction in CAUTI rates and, in turn, an increase in candidemia and enterococcemia cases classified as CLABSI events. These findings have important implications on the perceived successes or failures to eliminate both infections.
The [CII] 158 μm line is typically the brightest far-IR emission line from star-forming galaxies. As such, this line is a possible tracer of star-formation, but to do so we need the relative contributions of different ISM phases. Using high physical resolution observations of the [CII] 158 μm line from Herschel PACS in five 3'×3' field in M 31 and optical IFU spectra from PPaK and ancillary IR data, we are able to spatially separate out the ISM phases Kapala. We find that a large fraction of [CII] emission in M 31 arises from diffuse gas (~20–90), with a sub-linear relation of [CII]–SFR at ~50 pc scales. However, on ~kpc scales, the observed empirical [CII]–SFR relation is in agreement with other extragalactic studies.
We use a sample of 36 galaxies to study empirical relations between Herschel infrared (IR) luminosities and the total mass of the interstellar gas (H2 + HI). Such a comparison provides a simple empirical relationship without introducing the uncertainty of dust model fitting. We find tight correlations, and provide fits to these relations, between Herschel luminosities and the total gas mass integrated over entire galaxies, with the tightest, almost linear, correlation found for the longest wavelength data (SPIRE500). However, we find that accounting for the gas-phase metallicity (affecting the dust-to-gas ratio) is crucial when applying these relations to low-mass, and presumably high-redshift, galaxies. When examining these relations as a function of galactocentric radius, we find the same correlations, albeit with a larger scatter, up to radius of r ∼ 0.7r25 (containing most of a galaxy's baryonic mass). The tight relations found for the bulk of the galaxy's baryonic content suggest that total gas masses of disk-like (non-merging/ULIRG) galaxies can be inferred from far-infrared continuum measurements in situations where only the latter are available. This work is to appear in Groves et al. (2014).
Galaxy outflows are a vital mechanism in the regulation of galaxy evolution through feedback and enrichment. NGC 2146, a nearby infrared luminous galaxy (LIRG), presents evidence for outflows along the disk minor axis in all gas phases (ionized, neutral atomic and molecular). We present new far-IR Herschel imaging and spectroscopy of this galaxy from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) project, as well as new optical integral field unit spectroscopy, to map the kinematics and gas excitation in the central 5 kpc and trace the dust distribution (Kreckel et al.2014). We observe an increased velocity dispersion in the [OI] 62 um, [OIII] 88 um, [NII] 122 um and [CII] 158 um fine-structure lines that is spatially coincident with shocked gas above and below the disk.
The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6 % (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22 %. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.
Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the major threats to wildlife populations in tropical forests. Loss of habitat reduces the carrying capacity of the landscape and fragmentation disrupts biological processes and exposes wildlife populations to the effects of small population size, such as reduction of genetic diversity and increased impact of demographic stochasticity. The Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla Gorilla gorilla diehli is threatened in particular by habitat disturbance because its population is small and it lives in an area where high human population density results in intense exploitation of natural resources. We used remotely-sensed data to assess the extent and distribution of gorilla habitat in the Cross River region and delineated potential dispersal corridors. Our analysis revealed > 8,000 km2 of tropical forest in the study region, 2,500 km2 of which is in or adjacent to areas occupied by gorillas. We surveyed 12 areas of forest identified as potential gorilla habitat, 10 of which yielded new records of gorillas. The new records expand the known range of the Cross River gorilla by > 50%, and support genetic analyses that suggest greater connectivity of the population than previously assumed. These findings demonstrate that considerable connected forest habitat remains and that the area could potentially support a much larger gorilla population if anthropogenic pressures such as hunting could be reduced.
The objective of this study was to use fecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to estimate the percent spotted knapweed in the diet of grazing ewes to fine tune grazing prescriptions. In trial 1, five ewes were randomly selected from a band of 900 ewes to estimate weekly variation in percent spotted knapweed in the diet. Fecal samples from these ewes were collected weekly from June 22 through August 17 (nine collections per ewe for a total of 45 observations). In trial 2, fecal samples were collected from 89 ewes in the band to estimate variability in percent spotted knapweed in the diet among sheep at two sampling dates corresponding to the bud (July 13) and postflowering (August 15) stages of spotted knapweed phenology. In trial 1, the percent spotted knapweed in the diet was similar (P > 0.05) on June 22, June 29, July 13, and July 20 but was greater (P < 0.05) on July 6 than June 22 and 29. Percent spotted knapweed in the diet was also greater (P < 0.05) from July 27 through August 17 than from June 22 through July 20. On July 13 in trial 2, 55% of ewes had 0 to 5% spotted knapweed in their diets, whereas 44% of ewes had 5 to 20% spotted knapweed in their diets. On August 15, only 1% of ewes had < 10% spotted knapweed in their diets, whereas 44% of ewes had 20 to 25% spotted knapweed in their diets. The estimated percent spotted knapweed in the diet of the 89 ewes in trial 2 was similar to that of the five ewes during the same time period in sampling trial 1 (5.3% compared with 5.0% for sampling trials 1 and 2, respectively, on July 13 and 22.0% compared with 20.7% on August 15 and 17 for trials 1 and 2, respectively). This is the first study to estimate percent spotted knapweed in the diet of individual grazing ewes. These data suggest that the best time to graze spotted knapweed–infested pastures would be in late July or early August, when spotted knapweed is flowering, but before viable seed production.
A consensus of expert opinion was used to provide both face and consensual validity to a list of potential indicators of sheep welfare. This approach was used as a first step in the identification of valid welfare indicators for sheep. The consensus methodology of the National Institute of Health, using pre-meeting consultation and focus group discussions, was used to ascertain the consensus opinion of a panel of sheep welfare experts. The Farm Animal Welfare Council's five freedoms were used as a framework to organise a list of current on-farm welfare issues for sheep. The five freedoms were also the welfare criterion used to identify potential on-farm welfare indicators for sheep. As a result, experts identified 193 welfare issues for sheep and lambs managed on farms across England and Wales. Subsequently, a combination of animal- (n = 26), resource- (n = 13) and management- (n = 22) based indicators was suggested for (i) adult rams, (ii) adult ewes (male and female sheep, over 1 year old), (iii) growing lambs (male and female sheep, over 6 weeks to 1 year old) and (iv) young lambs (male and female lambs, 6 weeks old and under). The results from this study could therefore be used to inform the further development of valid methods of assessing the on-farm welfare of sheep.
Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) were used to measure serum antibodies to Cryptosporidium in four immunocompetent adults with recent proven cryptosporidial infection, 379 healthy children and 73 adult volunteers in Melbourne, Australia, and 205 children in Papua New Guinea (PNG) (47 healthy children; 158 with pneumonia). Antibodies peaked 3–6 weeks after infection and fell to baseline within a few months. A high level (5000 EIA units/ml) or a significant change between paired sera, of IgG or IgM, were taken as evidence of recent infection and found in 24% of PNG children and in 8% of children and 5% of adults in Melbourne. Among PNG children with pneumonia who had high cryptosporidial antibody levels, those with measles (6/8) were significantly more likely (P = 0·002) to have diarrhoea than the remainder (4/28). Symptomatic cryptosporidiosis may be associated with transient immune suppression due to viral infection. This study indicates that serological surveys can contribute to an understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidosis.
Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF) is used to rank transgenic cotton technology groups and place an upper and lower bound on their value. Yield and production data from replicated plot experiments are used to build cumulative distribution functions of returns for nontransgenic, Roundup Ready, Bollgard, and stacked gene cotton cultivars. Analysis of Arkansas data indicated that the stacked gene and Roundup Ready technologies would be preferred by a large number of risk neutral and risk averse producers as long as the costs of the technology and seed are below the lower bounds calculated in this manuscript.
The Permian–Triassic boundary, examined at two sections in the Southern Alps, occurs ~ 1.0 to 1.5 m above the base of the Tesero Oolite Member of the Werfen Formation in a depositionally continuous sequence of inner neritic carbonates. Lagenide foraminifers from the boundary interval comprise 27 species in 15 genera plus additional unidentified taxa, most of which became extinct during the end-Permian crisis. The only survivors were “Nodosaria” elabugae and unidentified species in Geinitzina and Nodosinelloides, with representatives of the latter two genera being short-term holdovers. The end-Permian lagenide extinction level occurs a few decimeters below the biostratigraphically defined erathem boundary, just above the contact between the Bulla Member of the Bellerophon Formation and the overlying Tesero Oolite Member. Confidence intervals (>96%) for the lagenide extinction at the two sections are 0.03 and 0.04 m thick. Plots of species' stratigraphic abundance versus their last observed occurrences below the estimated extinction intervals at both localities are consistent with abrupt extinction or gradual extinction lasting no more than the time required for 1 m of rock to accumulate. Blooms of the foraminiferal disaster taxa Rectocornuspira kalhori and Earlandia sp. occur in the extinction interval and continue well into the Dienerian part of the Mazzin Member of the Werfen Formation, consistent with a protracted survival phase. A detailed carbon isotope record has been obtained from rocks bracketing the extinction at the well-known Tesero section. The combined microfossil and carbon isotope data indicate that the extinction occurred during an initial negative shift in δ13C. Therefore, the negative excursion is likely to be related to the cause of extinction and unlikely to be merely a consequence of extinction.