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Raw milk cheeses are commonly consumed in France and are also a common source of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Both an FBO surveillance system and a laboratory-based surveillance system aim to detect Salmonella outbreaks. In early August 2018, five familial FBOs due to Salmonella spp. were reported to a regional health authority. Investigation identified common exposure to a raw goats' milk cheese, from which Salmonella spp. were also isolated, leading to an international product recall. Three weeks later, on 22 August, a national increase in Salmonella Newport ST118 was detected through laboratory surveillance. Concomitantly isolates from the earlier familial clusters were confirmed as S. Newport ST118. Interviews with a selection of the laboratory-identified cases revealed exposure to the same cheese, including exposure to batches not included in the previous recall, leading to an expansion of the recall. The outbreak affected 153 cases, including six cases in Scotland. S. Newport was detected in the cheese and in the milk of one of the producer's goats. The difference in the two alerts generated by this outbreak highlight the timeliness of the FBO system and the precision of the laboratory-based surveillance system. It is also a reminder of the risks associated with raw milk cheeses.
F17464 is a new highly potent preferential D3 antagonist, 5-HT1A and weak D2 partial agonist, with confirmed antipsychotic-like activity in animal models. In healthy volunteers, F17464 had a good safety and tolerability profile. A PET-scan study determined a high D3 occupancy rate up to 22 h after a single dose.
The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of 40 mg/day of oral F17464 in comparison to placebo.
This double-blind, parallel group, multicenter study included patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia treated for 6 weeks as antipsychotic monotherapy. Patients were hospitalised for the first 3 weeks of treatment, then continued as outpatients.
The 144 randomized patients had a baseline PANSS mean (SD) total score was 89.6 (9.5). The change from baseline of PANSS total score to Day 43 on the FAS (LOCF), showed a statistically significant difference in favor of F17464 over placebo: adjusted mean (SE) change −13.5 (2.1) on F17464 and −7.8 (2.2) on placebo with a treatment effect estimate −5.7 (2.7). The 20% or 30% response rate was statistically higher in the F17464 group (47.2% and 25.0%) compared to the placebo group (30.6% and 13.9%). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was slightly higher in the F17464 group (70.8%) than in the placebo group (62.5%). There were no clinically-relevant hepatic, metabolic, or cardiovascular abnormalities. No EPS was reported under F17464.
This is the first D3 antagonist that proves efficacy. The results of this phase 2 study also demonstrate the favorable safety profile of F17674 when compared to placebo.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This work focuses on the functionalization of agave xylan-type hemicellulose functionalized with trimethoxysilylpropylmethacrylate and crosslinked with N-vinylcaprolactam to obtain a thermoresponsive material for potential applications in drug delivery. The hydrogels showed an interconnected and porous architecture with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) close to poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)’s (PNVCL) LCST. These materials showed a good capacity to load ciprofloxacin (in the range 9.5 × 10−3–8.4 × 10−3 mg/mL), above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ≤ 0.004 × 10−3–0.5 × 10−3 mg/mL) for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The hybrid hydrogel inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
No standardized surveillance criteria exist for surgical site infection after breast tissue expander (BTE) access. This report provides a framework for defining postaccess BTE infections and identifies contributing factors to infection during the expansion period. Implementing infection prevention guidelines for BTE access may reduce postaccess BTE infections.
In this paper, we address the linear stability analysis of a confined potential vortex with a free surface. This particular flow has been recently used by Tophøj et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 110(19), 2013, article 194502) as a model for the swirling flow of fluid in an open cylindrical container, driven by rotating the bottom plate (the rotating bottom experiment) to explain the so-called rotating polygons instability (Vatistas J. Fluid Mech., vol. 217, 1990, pp. 241–248; Jansson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 96, 2006, article 174502) in terms of surface wave interactions leading to resonance. Global linear stability results are complemented by a Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin–Jeffreys (WKBJ) analysis in the shallow-water limit as well as new experimental observations. It is found that global stability results predict additional resonances that cannot be captured by the simple wave coupling model presented in Tophøj et al. (2013). Both the main resonances (thought to be at the root of the rotating polygons) and these secondary resonances are interpreted in terms of over-reflection phenomena by the WKBJ analysis. Finally, we provide experimental evidence for a secondary resonance supporting the numerical and theoretical analysis presented. These different methods and observations allow to support the unstable wave coupling mechanism as the physical process at the origin of the polygonal patterns observed in free-surface rotating flows.
Liquid feeding has the potential to provide pigs with sufficient water to remain hydrated and prevent prolonged thirst. However, lack of permanent access to fresh water prevents animals from drinking when they are thirsty. Moreover, individual differences between pigs in a pen may result in uneven distribution of the water provided by the liquid feed, leading to some pigs being unable to meet their water requirements. In this review, we look at the need for and provision of water for liquid-fed pigs in terms of their production performance, behaviour, health and welfare. We highlight factors which may lead to water ingestion above or below requirements. Increases in the need for water may be caused by numerous factors such as morbidity, ambient temperature or competition within the social group, emphasising the necessity of permanent access to water as also prescribed in EU legislation. The drinkers can be the target of redirected behaviour in response to feed restriction or in the absence of rooting materials, thereby generating water losses. The method of water provision and drinker design is critical to ensure easy access to water regardless of the pig’s physiological state, and to limit the amount of water used, which does not benefit the pig.
The motion of a liquid in an open cylindrical tank rotating at a constant rate around its vertical axis of symmetry, a configuration called Newton’s bucket, is investigated using a linear stability approach. This flow is shown to be affected by several families of waves, all weakly damped by viscosity. The wave families encountered correspond to: surface waves which can be driven either by gravity or centrifugal acceleration, inertial waves due to Coriolis acceleration which are singular in the inviscid limit, and Rossby waves due to height variations of the fluid layer. These waves are described in the inviscid and viscous cases by means of mathematical considerations, global stability analysis and various asymptotic methods; and their properties are investigated over a large range of parameters
the aspect ratio and
the Froude number.
The global shape, or topology, of the universe is not constrained by the equations of General Relativity, which only describe the local universe. As a consequence, the boundaries of space are not fixed and topologies different from the trivial infinite Euclidean space are possible. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the most efficient tool to study topology and test alternative models. Multi-connected topologies, such as the 3-torus, are of great interest because they are anisotropic and allow us to test a possible violation of isotropy in CMB data. We show that the correlation function of the coefficients of the expansion of the temperature and polarization anisotropies in spherical harmonics encodes a topological signature. This signature can be used to distinguish an infinite space from a multi-connected space on sizes larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface (DLSS). With the help of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, we set the size of the edge of the biggest distinguishable torus with CMB temperature fluctuations and E-modes of polarization to 1.15 DLSS. CMB temperature fluctuations allow us to detect universes bigger than the observable universe, whereas E-modes are efficient to detect universes smaller than the observable universe.
The stability properties of the rotating free surface flow in a cylindrical container is
studied using a global stability approach, considering successively three models. For the
case of solid body rotation (Newton’s bucket), all eigenmodes are found to be stable, and
are classified into three families: gravity waves, singular inertial modes, and Rossby
waves. For the case of a potential flow, an instability is found. The mechanism is
explained as a resonance between gravity waves and centrifugal waves, and is thought to be
at the origin of the “rotating polygon instability” observed in experiments where the flow
is driven by rotation of the bottom plate (see L. Tophøj, J. Mougel, T. Bohr, D. Fabre,
The Rotating Polygon Instability of a Swirling Free Surface Flow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110
(2013) 194502). Finally, in the case of the Rankine vortex which in fact consists in the
combination of the two first cases, we report a new instability mechanism involving Rossby
and gravity waves.
Exposure of anoestrous ewes to rams induces an increase in LH secretion, eventually leading to ovulation. This technique therefore is an effective, low-cost and hormone-free way of mating sheep outside the breeding season. However, the use of this technique is limited by the variability of the ewes’ responses. In this study, our objective was to understand more completely the origins of this variability and to determine the relative roles of breed, the point in time during anoestrus and the depth of anoestrus on the response to the ‘ram effect’. In the first experiment, the pattern of anoestrus on the basis of the concentration of progesterone determined weekly, was determined in four breeds including two less seasonal (Mérinos d'Arles and Romane), one highly seasonal (Mouton Vendéen) and one intermediate (Île-de-France) breeds. Anoestrus was longer and deeper in Mouton Vendéen and Île-de-France than in Romane or Mérinos d'Arles. In the second experiment, we used the same four breeds and tested their hypophyseal response to a challenge with a single dose of 75 ng gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in early, mid and late anoestrus, and then we examined their endocrine and ovarian responses to the ‘ram effect’. Most (97%) ewes responded to GnRH and most (93%) showed a short-term increase in LH pulsatility following the ‘ram effect’. The responses in both cases were higher in females that went on to ovulate, suggesting that the magnitude of the hypophyseal response to a GnRH challenge could be a predictor of the response to the ‘ram effect’. As previously observed, the best ovarian response was in Mérinos d'Arles at the end of anoestrus. However, there was no relationship between the proportion of females in the flock showing spontaneous ovulation and the response to the ‘ram effect’ of anoestrous ewes from the same flock.
We use direct numerical simulations to study a steady bathtub vortex in a cylindrical tank with a central drain-hole, a flat stress-free surface and velocity prescribed at the inlet. We find that the qualitative structure of the meridional flow does not depend on the radial Reynolds number, whereas we observe a weak overall rotation at a low radial Reynolds number and a concentrated vortex above the drain-hole at a high radial Reynolds number. We introduce a simple analytically integrable model that shows the same qualitative dependence on the radial Reynolds number as the simulations and compares favourably with the results for the radial velocity and the azimuthal velocity at the surface. Finally, we describe the height dependence of the radius of the vortex core and the maximum of the azimuthal velocity at a high radial Reynolds number, and we show that the data on the radius of the vortex core and the maximum of the azimuthal velocity as functions of height collapse on single curves by appropriate scaling.
After several decades of observations from space, direct measurements of the global threedimensional wind field remain elusive, however crucial to weather predictions. The ALADIN instrument, payload of the AEOLUS satellite (figure 1), will provide measurements of atmospheric wind profiles with global Earth coverage for the climatology and meteorology users. The AEOLUS programme is sponsored by the European Space Agency with a launch planned in 2008.
ALADIN belongs to a new class of Earth Observation payloads and will be the first European Lidar in space. The instrument comprises a diode-pumped high energy Nd:YAG laser and a direct detection receiver operating on aerosol and molecular backscatter signals in parallel. In addition to the Flight Model (FM), two instrument models are developed: a Pre-development Model (PDM) and an Opto-Structure-Thermal Model (OSTM). The OSTM integration has been completed and the flight equipments are under manufacturing. This paper describes the instrument design as well as the development status. The ALADIN instrument is developed under prime contractor EADS Astrium SAS with a consortium of thirty companies.
A prospective multicentric study was carried out to assess both the performance of Western-blot (WB) detecting specific anti-Toxocara IgG and that of CAP™ measuring specific IgE titre for the immunodiagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. For 14 outpatients presenting ophthalmic symptoms (choroiditis, chorioretinitis, papillar oedema, hyalitis, retinal detachment and/or uveitis), samples of serum and aqueous fluid (AF) were sent to the Department of Parasitology, University Hospitals, Toulouse, France. All patients but two tested positive with WB on the serum; 13 WB tests were performed on the AF, 12 of which were positive. The two patients who had a negative WB serum result tested positive for the AF. Specific IgE detection was considered as a complementary test of WB. Two patients showed a greater specific IgE titre in the AF than in the serum, and one had a positive result in the AF, but not in the serum. These six patients were considered as clear cases of ocular toxocariasis. Western-blot coupled with specific anti-Toxocara IgE detection appeared therefore to be an accurate procedure for the immunodiagnosis of ocular toxocariasis, provided the testing was simultaneously performed on the serum and AF.
For the past years in Europe, the need for reliable alternative techniques to animal experimentation has been urged by ethical and legal prescriptions. In ruminant nutrition, dual outflow stirred-tank reactors (Hoover et al., 1976; Merry et al.,1987) have proved to be suitable for the accurate control of environmental conditions to study the metabolism of rumen microbes. Their ability to support a varied ciliate population, however, is uneven. As protozoa are major agents in the rumen microbial community, investigating the best set of general operating conditions to maintain their population at high levels is an important issue.
The study was conducted in six dual outflow continuous fermenters (working volume of 1.11) supplied with 30 g/day of a pelleted diet made of 750 g orchard-grass hay and 250 g ground barley per kg. The vessels were inoculated with the rumen contents from four wethers, each equipped with a rumen cannula and given a similar diet. They were continuously infused with an artificial saliva containing: Na2HPO4.12H2O 6.157 g/l, NaHCO3 5.268 g/l, KHCO3 0.597 g/l, NaCl 0.305 g/l, HC1-cysteine 0.4 g/l and alcalinized to pH 10.0 with 1.63 g/l NaOH. The fermentation broth was separately complemented with 31.7 mg CaCl2, 47.5 mg MgCl2 and 0.755 g (NH4)2SO4 per day.
To compare the safety and antidepressant efficacy of paroxetine, imipramine, and placebo, data from six centres using the same protocol were pooled. A double-blind parallel-group design was used, with therapy lasting six weeks. From week 2 onwards, both the 240 paroxetine-treated and the 237 imipramine-treated patients were significantly different from the 240 placebo-treated patients, but no different from each other. Side-effects with paroxetine were less likely to lead to drop-out than with imipramine. Paroxetine had a possible earlier antidepressant effect than imipramine, and a possible earlier beneficial effect on anxiety symptoms associated with depression.