To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are considered markers of insulin resistance (IR) in subjects with obesity. In this study, we evaluated whether the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the branched-chain aminotransferase 2 (BCAT2) gene can modify the effect of a dietary intervention (DI) on the plasma concentration of BCAAs in subjects with obesity and IR.
A prospective cohort study of adult subjects with obesity, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, IR (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) no diagnosed chronic disease, underwent a DI with an energy restriction of 750 kcal/d and nutritional education for one month. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure (REE), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, serum biochemical parameters and the plasma amino acid profile were evaluated before and after the DI. SNPs were assessed by the TaqMan SNP genotyping assay.
A total of 82 subjects were included, 15 subjects with a BCAT2 SNP had a greater reduction in leucine, isoleucine, valine, and the sum of BCAAs. Those subjects also had a greater reduction in skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, total body water, blood pressure, muscle strength and biochemical parameters after one month of the DI and adjusting for age and sex.
This study demonstrated that the presence of the BCAT2 SNP promotes a greater reduction in plasma BCAA concentration after adjusting for age and sex, in subjects with obesity and IR after a one-month energy-restricted DI.
Understanding place-based contributors to health requires geographically and culturally diverse study populations, but sharing location data is a significant challenge to multisite studies. Here, we describe a standardized and reproducible method to perform geospatial analyses for multisite studies. Using census tract-level information, we created software for geocoding and geospatial data linkage that was distributed to a consortium of birth cohorts located throughout the USA. Individual sites performed geospatial linkages and returned tract-level information for 8810 children to a central site for analyses. Our generalizable approach demonstrates the feasibility of geospatial analyses across study sites to promote collaborative translational research.
Spreading of pruning waste over the soil surface may increase soil organic carbon, thus improving soil physical properties and serving as a source of nutrients and energy for microbial populations. The aim of this study was to test the effect of the environmental conditions and the biochemical composition of pruning waste from avocado, cherimoya, mango and gardens on their decomposition process in a Mediterranean subtropical climate. Bagged pruning and garden waste were placed on the ground at a distance of 1 m around the trunk of the three trees from each crop. The concentrations in C, N, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, other extracts and ash were determined at the beginning of the experiment (T0), after six (T6) and 24 (T24) months in the field. Initially, significant differences were detected for all types of waste, especially in lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose and other extracts. No significant differences were found in the N content and the C content in mango pruning waste was significantly lower than that in avocado. The greatest weight loss recorded at T24 (63.2%) was related to the lower content in lignin, cellulose and other extracts. Weight losses and C concentrations showed negative correlations with lignin content. Despite the intense decomposition of all the waste, between 55 and 36.8% of the original weights were recorded at the end of the experiment. Recalcitrant C could be the result of the lignin concentrating in the case of the garden waste applied to the different crops.
Improving functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the main objectives in clinical practice. Of the few psychosocial interventions that have been specifically developed to enhance the psychosocial outcome in BD, functional remediation (FR) is one which has demonstrated efficacy. The aim of this study was to examine which variables could predict improved functional outcome following the FR intervention in a sample of euthymic or subsyndromal patients with BD.
A total of 92 euthymic outpatients were included in this longitudinal study, with 62 completers. Partial correlations controlling for the functional outcome at baseline were calculated between demographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables, and functional outcome at endpoint was assessed by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test scale. Next, a multiple regression analysis was run in order to identify potential predictors of functional outcome at 2-year follow-up, using the variables found to be statistically significant in the correlation analysis and other variables related to functioning as identified in the previous scientific literature.
The regression model revealed that only two independent variables significantly contributed to the model (F(6,53): 4.003; p = 0.002), namely verbal memory and inhibitory control. The model accounted for 31.2% of the variance. No other demographic or clinical variable contributed to the model.
Results suggest that patients with better cognitive performance at baseline, especially in terms of verbal memory and executive functions, may present better functional outcomes at long term follow-up after receiving functional remediation.
“Rite of passage” is an etnographic concept developed by VanGennep that defines the vital transition of an individual between two different status. It is divided in three stages: separation, liminal/threshold and aggregation. Turner described the liminal phase, and the terms of “communitas” and “liminoid” (structure of a rite without religious/spiritual elements). One widely-known Rite of Passage is the initiation of the shamans.
Study the elements of a rite of passage present in Psychiatric Trainning.
• Field study (observational, descriptive, non-experimental).
• Preliminary Sample=10trainees (5man+5women); last year of Psychiatric Trainning.
• “ad hoc” semi-structured interview (21items subdivided in open questions). 10interviews (average duration=75mins). Permanent register:digital recorder.
• Summary and analysis of the answers. Review of the literature.
- Psychiatric Trainning shared the elements and tri-phasic structure of VanGennep's “rite of passage” concept
- Trainees saw themselves as more empathic(7/10) and humanistic(8/10) than other specialties colleagues. Stigma towards mental illness(8/10) and fear of suicide(9/10) were also considered as their distinctives.
- The collective behaved as a communitas(10/10)
- No spiritual elements(0/10): liminoid process
- Resemblances of the ancestral shamans' Initiation: Despite bloody practices were over, suffering was also present(7/10), but was seen as necessary(6/10) and well tolerated(7/10).
- Trainees felt that they grew spiritual and mentally(7/10) during the trainning years
Results suggest that Psychiatric Trainning has stable phenomena that:
• are compatible with the Rite of Passage schema
• Are considered exclusive of Psychiatry by trainees
• Have not been systematically studied as a whole, which could help to improve the training.
Fiction films offer unexplored opportunities of rehabilitation for schizophrenia and other psychoses. Schizophrenia produces deficits y distortions in the perception and comprehension of reality, also expressed in the perception and comprehension of films. After a year of an “ad hoc” experience, the following technique was developed:
1) Selecting a fiction film for its narrative, affective, cognitive and social cognitive content
2) Briefly presenting of the film to a group of 8-16 patients with diverse psychosis.
3) Screening of the film to the patients and the therapeutic team.
4) Summarizing of the plot by a patient. Group correcting of distortions and deficits caused by problems of attention and working memory, as well as positive, negative, affective and social cognitive symptoms (emotional perception, theory of mind, attributive style)
5) Selecting 1-2 sequences by each patient, and group commenting using the same technique.
6) Field recording of all the commentaries obtained.
7) Second screening of the film two days after, repeating points 2 to 6.
8) Comparing both field records.
An experimental study using this technique is presented. 8 patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses watched 4 fiction films (“The 39 Steps”, “Charade”, “M”, “The General”). The differences founded in both viewings by two external evaluators (using CGI and analogical scales of the main variables) are presented and commented. An evaluation of the perceived usefulness and satisfaction of the participants was included.
Up to 45% of individuals who commit suicide contact their Primary Care physician (PCP) the month before. The objective is to study clinical characteristics of patients presenting death and/or suicidal ideation (SI) in Primary Care.
195 patients attending their PCP were evaluated using systematic sampling in three Primary Care Centres. Patients completed the PHQ and a Life Changes Checklist. Demographic data, both psychiatric and medical conditions and treatments, visits to their PCP, and days out of work (last year) were also collected.
24 patients had death or suicidal ideation for the previous two weeks (12,4%; IC95% 8,3-18,8%). Most of them (87,5%) had a mental disease, major depressive disorder (62,5%) and general anxiety disorder (50%). Patients with SI had more somatic symptoms (p<0,001), a greater number and score of recent life changes (p<0,001) and days out of work (last year) ((p=0,028) than the rest of the sample.
Compared to patients with any psychiatric disorder, patients with SI had more depressive symptoms (p<0,001) and a higher score in life changes in the 6-12 month period (p=0,044).
14 (58,3%) patients with SI had no previous psychiatric diagnosis and only 8 (33%) were receiving treatment.
In spite of a greater severity in depressive and other clinical characteristics of patients with SI most of them are not correctly detected and treated. Improving the rate of detection and treatment by the PCP of such patients would probably play a key role in the prevention of suicide.
We aimed to study the relationship between impulsivity and the addiction severity in 3 groups of outpatients attending our clinic, through the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and the standarized, semistructured interview EuropAsi.
174 outpatients were analized (82.6% men, 113 cocaine-dependent as main drug (mean age 32.71 y.o. (31.45–33.96)), 43 cocaine and heroin-dependent (mean age 36.68 y.o. (33.52–39.85)) and 18 heroin dependent (mean age 37.94 (32.71–41.50)). 26.3% were cannabis-dependent and 10.9% abused of Cannabis. Statistical analysis used was the Kruskal-Wallis Test.
Differences in motor impulsivity were found between the 2 groups with cocaine dependency and the only heroin-dependent (mean = 20.59, ST ± 7.7 and mean = 17.11, ST ± 7.3, respectively; W: .019). EuropASI, showed intergroup differences in the medical, use of alcohol and legal areas. In the medical area the most affected were the heroin dependent group (mean score = .40), followed by cocaine and heroin group (mean score = .27) and the cocaine-dependent (Mean = .10). In the use of alcohol area the most affected were the cocaine group (Mean = .16) followed by the cocaine and heroin-dependent (mean = .11) and heroin dependent (Mean = .06). In the legal area the most affected were the the cocaine and heroin-dependent (Mean =.22) followed by heroin-dependent (Mean = .09) and cocaine-dependent (Mean = .07).
Patients suffering from stimulant dependency alone or together with heroin dependency show different impulsivity levels. The addiction severity varies depending on the substance of abuse. Treatment programs should be designed attending patients’ needs.
Interdigital 2D:4D ratio has been considered as an indicator of prenatal exposure to androgens, entailing then a smaller ratio more androgenisation. Although it has been related to systemizing and empathy dimensions in the general population, it has never been studied in parents of people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).
Objectives and aims
To analyse the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and these psychological variables in this population.
The sample was composed by parents of both genders of people with (n = 46) or without (n = 42) ASDs. The ratio was calculated as the mean of 3 measurements of each hand evaluated by 3 different researchers. Psychological dimensions were evaluated by means of the Systemizing and Empathy Quotients (SQ and EQ, respectively).
Parents of ASDs persons showed lower scores in the EQ than controls, being these differences replicated only in men. No differences between groups for the 2D:4D ratio were found. Nevertheless, regression analyses indicated that in parents of ASDs a higher 2D:4D left ratio predicted a higher EQ. This result was also observed in men but not in women. In any case, the model was not significant in the control group.
Parents of ASDs persons showed lower EQ than controls, being this quotient predicted by the left 2D:4D ratio only in the former. When analysing in each gender, these results are only obtained in men. Among other parameters, the D2:D4 ratio (especially the left hand one) could be considered a valid indicator of the ASDs parent's idiosyncrasy.
Chronic insomnia (ChI) is a common condition in Primary Care (PC). Regardless that it's often related to psychiatric morbidity it appears to be a strong predictor of future depression and a disabling disorder by itself. The aim of this study was to measure and compare clinical and psychiatric characteristics of both patients with primary ChI and secondary ChI.
A random sample of 225 subjects older than 18 years old, from 3 PC Centres of the area of Madrid (Spain) was interviewed using the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire, a semi-structured interview for sleep disorders. The subjects completed the Patient Health Questionnaire. Data about medical conditions, drug treatments, days of work lost (last year) and use of health care services (last 3 months), were also collected. Psychiatric and clinical characteristics between groups (primary vs secondary ChI) were compared.
78 patients fulfilled criteria for ChI and 53 (67.9 %) of them were suffering from any psychiatric disorder (including subtreshold conditions). Patients with primary ChI compared to secondary insomnia patients had no significant differences in age, gender, use of health care resources and days of work lost. However, patients with secondary ChI compared to primary ChI had more somatic and depressive symptoms (U-Mann-Witney test; p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively).
There is an important group of patients among PC attendees suffering primary ChI. Patients suffering primary ChI are comparable to patients with psychiatric disorders and insomnia in terms of days of work lost and use of health care resources.
Previous data suggest that there is an important group of patients between primary care (PC) attendees suffering a psychiatric disorder that remain undetected. Our aim was to know data about this group of patients compared with patients without psychiatric pathology (PWP) and patients with already known psychiatric pathology (PKP).
A random sample of 225 subjects older than 18 years old, from 3 PC Centres of the area of Madrid (Spain) completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Data about medical and psychiatric conditions, drug treatments, days of work lost (last year) and use of health care services (last 3 months), were also collected. Psychiatric and clinical characteristics between groups were compared.
50 (22,2%) patients were suffering a psychiatric condition according to PHQ but without recognition by their general practioner. This group of patients were younger than PWP and PKP (ANOVA; p=0,021 and p=0,013). They were suffering more depressive symptoms and somatic complaints than PWP (p<0,001 and p<0,001 respectively). In terms of days of work lost and use of health care services did not differ from PWP.
The results suggest that other reasons rather than the symptomathology (depresive symptoms, somatic complaints) may be important in the proccess of detection of mental health problems in PC. Both days of work lost and the number of visits to general practioner appear to be two determinant factors.
Caregiving of offspring with a chronic illness is a highly stressful vital experience. Previous studies with parents of schizophrenic persons revealed that these situations increase health complaints (González-Bono et al., 2009), with the duration of caring being a relevant variable (Contell-Montaña et al., 2010). The higher age of the caregivers of schizophrenia can contribute to this health unbalance, but little is known in younger samples.
To test whether middle-aged caregivers (parents of autistic persons) present higher health disturbances than controls and to investigate the moderating role of duration of caring
Health complaints and resting levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) were measured in a sample of 38 middle-aged caregivers of autistic offspring (24 mothers/14 fathers) and 35 parents of healthy persons (17 women/18 men) of similar characteristics.
Caregivers report more immunological, muscular, genital-urinary and general health complaints than controls. Additionally, the scores of all scales and total score of Goldberg Health Questionnaire were higher in caregivers than in non caregivers. No significant differences were found in IgA levels. Among caregivers, fewer years of caring were associated with more anxiety and lower IgA levels.
Chronic stress of caregiving of autistic offspring is associated with more health complaints. The number of years after unequivocal diagnosis of autism has a moderating effect on immunological disturbances and anxiety in care givers. Further research is needed to clarify whether the interventions focused on anxiety can influence the low antibodies levels and decrease future health complaints.
Analysing reactivity to laboratory stressor in lab is a valid model for understanding how people act in real-life situations. Electrodermal activity is a good index of emotionality, which has not been analysed in caregivers of persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).
Objectives and aims
This work aims to compare the response of electrodermal activity to mental stress between caregivers of ASDs people and controls, as the former could show a different response due to their particular situation characterised by a state of continuous alert.
Parents of both genders of people with (n = 44) or without (n = 42) ASDs carried out a set of different mental tasks. Skin Conductance Level (SCL) was continuously registered before, during, and after the tasks. Skin Conductance Responses (SCR) were obtained from SCL levels using Acqknowledge software.
For SCL, a significant effect of “gender” and of “period x group” and “period x group x gender” interactions was observed. SCL was higher in men than in women and in controls when compared to caregivers. Controls presented more SCL Reactivity than caregivers, being these results were replicated in men (who also showed worse recovery in controls) but not in women. In caregivers, men showed lower SCR Reactivity than women.
Caregivers of ASDs showed a lower electrodermal reactivity to mental stress than controls, and this effect was stronger in men. These results could reflect a lower reactivity to stressful situations in caregivers and, consequently, a loss of the adaptative potential of the stress response in this population.
Caregivers of relatives with chronic diseases has shown lower rest levels of immunoglobulin A than non-caregivers (Gallagher et al., 2008). In response to mental stress, IgA levels used to be increased in healthy population (Okamura et al. 2010). Scarce studies have been focused on immunological effects of caregiving in response to stress, and the results are controversial. To our knowledge, there are no studies stressing this field in chronically stressed populations such as caregivers of autistic offspring.
Objectives and aims
Evaluate whether caregivers present different psychosocial and immunological responses to acute stress than non-caregivers, as well as what is the role of gender in these responses.
38 caregivers of persons with autism and 35 non-caregivers were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stress. IgA levels were measured before, during and after a set of several mental tasks, while the state of mood was evaluated before and after the stressors.
Caregivers showed blunted IgA response to stress in men and women compared with non-caregivers, although the response pattern was different for each gender. Moreover, caregivers presented worse mood (depression, anger, fatigue, vigor and total score) than non-caregivers. Moreover, psychological effects of stress are inversely associated with levels of IgA, fundamentally during the task.
Caregiving reduces IgA secretion in response to psychosocial stress, although differently in men and women. Further studies are necessary to explore other neuroendocrine factors, together with mood, that could be involved in this buffered response.
Cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) is an alpha-1-glycoprotein with high affinity for cortiso that could be a potential biological marker of chronic stress, according to several previous studies. In order to examine CBG concentrations in bipolar disorder, we determined serum CBG levels by radioimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies in a sample of 39 RDC bipolar I patients in remission and 21 healthy age-, sex- and weight-matched control subjects. Only lithium treatment was permitted. Plasma cortisol and serum lithium levels were also determined. Bipolar males showed statistically significant lower serum CBG levels than controls, whereas women showed very similar values. No correlation was found between CBG levels and cortisol or lithium concentrations. It is concluded that CBG levels are affected by chronic affective illness, even during remission periods, at least in bipolar males.
attitudes towards suicide among health science students will influence their future encounter with suicidal patients. The aim of the present study is to describe the attitudes towards suicidal behaviours among medical and nursing students from the University of Oviedo, and to identify the parameters (demographic, personal experiences and believes) that influence such attitudes.
medical (3° and 5° year) and nursing (1° y 2° year) students at the University of Oviedo who attended to class a regular day were asked to participate in the survey. Those who participated filled in the Attitudes Towards Suicide Questionnaire.
a total of 162 students were included in this study. The mean age was 21 years (SD 2.4); 84% were women; 63% had religious believes; 15.6% had had at least once suicidal thoughts or ideas. An empathetic and optimistic view towards suicidal patients appeared to be mostly prevalent among health science students. Age, type of studies, previous information about suicide and history of previous suicidal thoughts influence some of these attitudes.
older, medical students and those who have received specific information about suicidal behaviours have attitudes more determined by a medical perspective. Previous history of suicidal ideation is associated with a more pessimistic view of these behaviours.
Chronic consumption of cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. The term cocaine induced psychosis (CIP) has been used to describe this syndrome. Cocaine Induce Psichotic Disorder (CIPD) have been used to describe a full psychotic state. CIP and CIPD prevalences are not well described.
To evaluate risk factors for CIPD, in cocaine-dependents according to DSM-IV criteria.
We evaluated 150 patients (mean age 34 y.o, 81.8% men) of which 143 were included, using The PRISM (Psychiatric Research for Substance and Mental Disorders) interview. Exclusion criteria were: psychotic disorder or bipolar type I disorder, intoxication at interview, severe somatic disease at interview and language barrier. We compared three groups: group I: without any psychotic symptoms (33,33%); group II: with any psychotic symptoms (28,57%) and group III: with CIPD (38,77%).
Differences were found in Patients of Group III in the Age at onset of addiction p < .0001*, past history of imprisonment p < 0,01, Alcohol Use disorders p = .006, Cannabis use disorders P < .0001* and Hallucinogens use disorders p < 0,001.All remaining after Bonferroni corrections.
CIPD is common in this population (approximately 40%). Risk factor for suffering CIPD were described, in Cocaine-dependents. Finally, professionals who work with cocaine-dependents patients should incorporate these considerations into an integral approach.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
The self-medication hypothesis suggests that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia might smoke as an attempt to self-medicate theirsymptoms. As a consequence, smoking cessation could worsen their clinical status.
To assess the clinical changes associated with tobacco cessation in a sample of smoking outpatients with schizophrenia.
Sample: 63 smoking outpatients with DSM-IV Schizophrenia from three Mental Health Centers located in Northern Spain [77.0% males; mean age (SD) = 43.90 (8.72); average daily cigarette use (SD) = 27.99 (12.55)]. Instruments: (1) Clinical symptoms: Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI). (2) Pattern of tobacco use: n° cigarettes/day; Expired carbon monoxide (CO ppm). Design: A quasi-experimental design with two groups was implemented: control group (GC − 18 patients not willing to stop smoking), and treatment group [TG − 45 patients in smoking cessation supported by nicotine patches or vareniclina (12 weeks)]. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at week 11 (end of program). Paired sample t-test was used to detect changes in clinical symptoms from baseline to follow-up.
23.1% stopped smoking (from TG). No significant differences were found between baseline and follow-up scores (p>.05) among smokers and abstinent in PANSS subscales, HDRS and CGI.
Tobacco cessation did not have a significant effect on the clinical symptoms of this group of patients. Further studies should analyze the stability of these outcomes at longer follow-ups to confirm our results.
Cocaine dependence disorder has been widely described. However, differences due to gender remain unknown.
To compare clinical gender differences in a large sample of cocaine-dependent patients.
We performed a cross-sectional, observational study in 902 patients (35.47 yo, 21.3% women) with a cocaine dependence according DSM-IV criteria, seeking treatment during 2005 to 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected The SCID-I, SCID–II, BIS and a structured interview about cocaine-induced psychosis were performed. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out for demographic and clinical data. Bivariate analysis was made to compare the main variables by sex using SPSSvs18.0.
No differences in age of dependence onset, other clinical variables or cocaine-induced psychosis were detected. However, less cocaine used in the last month (2.12 vs 3.37g) (p < 0.009), more impulsivity (67.2 vs 63.03) (p < 0.040), and more sedative dependence (21.2% % vs 8.3%)(p< 0.00) were detected in women than in men. Affective disorders lifetime were the most prevalent (57,4%) in women. More comorbidity with anxiety disorders (p< 0.025) eating disorders (p< 0.000) and personality disorders (p< 0.039) were detected in women than in men.
Sedative dependence and anxiety disorders should be investigated in cocaine-dependent women in order to treat these conditions. Surprisingly high impulsivity level was detected and could moderate cocaine consumption. However, no difference have been found previously in studies about gender differences in cocaine-dependent patients, so this finding should be confirm in new studies.