To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Bulk ZnO grown by the hydrothermal technique was investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), photoluminescence (PL), and infrared absorption (FTIR) techniques. Isolated subsitutional lithium is the dominant acceptor and could be detected using EPR or PL. A large concentration of neutral Li+-OH− centers were observed using FTIR data. EPR spectra assigned to Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, and Group III (Al, Ga) donors were also observed. Photoinduced changes in the charge states of the different deep and shallow centers were produced using 325 nm light, and the stability of these changes were monitored with EPR during pulsed thermal anneals. The charge-state changes for some defects were persistent and remained up to 300 K. These impurities, when present in device structures, may act as stable charge trapping sites.
Photoluminescence (PL) experiments performed on bulk ZnO crystals are used to establish the ionization energy of the substitutional nitrogen acceptor. The temperature dependence of the nitrogen-related electron-acceptor (e,A°) emission band has been monitored in as-grown single crystals. A lineshape analysis of this band is used to determine the acceptor ionization energy. The temperature variation of the ZnO band gap was included in our analysis and the low-temperature acceptor ionization energy for substitutional nitrogen at an oxygen site in ZnO was found to be EA = 209 ± 3 meV. Electron paramagnetic resonance and Hall-effect measurements were also used to characterize these bulk ZnO samples.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method have been studied using photoluminescence (PL), thermoluminescence (TL), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Lithium acceptors were diffused into the crystals during anneals in LiF powder at temperatures in the 750 to 850°C range. After a lithium diffusion, EPR was used to monitor neutral lithium acceptors and neutral shallow donors, as well as Ni3+, Fe3+, and Cu2+ impurities unintentionally present. Excitonic and deep-level PL emissions were also monitored before and after these diffusions. Two broad overlapping TL emission bands were observed at 117 and 145 K when a Li-diffused crystal was illuminated at 77 K with 325-nm light and then rapidly warmed to room temperature. The two TL bands have the same spectral dependence (the peak in wavelength is 540 nm when the intensity of the light reaches a maximum). These “glow” peaks occur when electrons are thermally released from Ni2+ and Fe2+ ions and recombine with holes at neutral lithium acceptors.
Bulk crystals of CdGeAs2 have been characterized using photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption, Hall effect, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. An absorption band near 5.5 microns at room temperature is observed in all of the p-type samples we have studied. A correlation between the magnitude of this optical absorption and the excess hole concentration at room temperature is established. Also, an EPR signal is found to correlate with the strength of this absorption band. PL data are consistent with an increased concentration of shallow acceptors being present in high-absorption samples. From the EPR data, we suggest that a model for the paramagnetic defect associated with the absorption at 5.5 microns may be an acceptor on an anion site.
Bulk ZnGeP2 (ZGP) crystals grown for high-power tunable mid-infrared laser systems contain large concentrations of three native defects. Using EPR, these three defects have been identified as the Zn vacancy (an acceptor), the phosphorus vacancy (a donor), and the germanium-on-zinc antisite (also a donor). We have studied the wavelength dependence of the photoinduced changes in the EPR signal intensity of the three defect centers using 633 nm and 1064 nm light. We observe a significant increase in the EPR signal under 633 nm light. The 633-nm light also produces an increase in the defect-related 1-R.m absorption band, and we have used a spectrophotometer to measure the spectral shape of the photoinduced change in absorption in this near-IR region. The 633-nm wavelength produces paramagnetic forms of both donor centers, while 1064 nm light only produces the EPR-active center. Time decays of the photoinduced EPR signals have been measured for each of the donors.
Zinc germanium diphosphide (ZnGeP2) is a nonlinear optical material used in mid-infrared optical parametric oscillators. The near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) from single crystals of bulk ZnGeP2 has been studied as a function of excitation power, wavelength, temperature, and polarization. At 5 K, a broad PL band extending from 0.7 µm to beyond 1 µm is typically observed. Two distinct emissions with different polarization, power, and temperature behaviors have been resolved. These bands have peaks in intensity near 1.6 eV and 1.4 eV. The relative intensities of these two bands were found to correlate with the presence of phosphorus vacancies, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A resonance in the intensity of the 1.6-eV band occurs when pumping into a level ∼90 meV below the minimum conduction band. This level is tentatively assigned to the shallow state.
As-grown crystals of ZnGeP2 are highly compensated and contain significant concentrations of donors and acceptors. The dominant acceptor in ZnGeP2 is believed to be the zinc vacancy. This center is paramagnetic in its normal singly ionized state, and gives rise to an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal characterized by a resolved primary hyperfine interaction with two equivalent phosphorus nuclei adjacent to the vacancy. The present investigation has focused on electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) measurements of additional hyperfine interactions which are not resolved in the regular EPR spectra. Principal values and principal axes directions for four additional phosphorus nuclei are determined from the ENDOR angular dependence. These parameters support the zinc-vacancy assignment for the acceptor and they provide an experimental check of wave functions generated in future computational modeling efforts.
Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) is an emerging material for room-temperature x-ray and gamma ray detectors. The identification and control of point defects and charge compensators are currently important issues. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies have been used to characterize point defects in CdZnTe crystals grown by the high-pressure Bridgman technique. Luminescence due to shallow donors, shallow acceptors, and deeper acceptors was monitored for a series of samples. An isotropic EPR signal attributed to shallow hydrogenic donors is observed in all samples, and the concentration of shallow donors has been determined. The nature of the defect centers (impurities, vacancies, vacancy-impurity complexes), and the correlation between defect concentration and device performance is discussed.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to monitor native defects, both acceptors and donors, in ZnGeP2 crystals grown by the horizontal gradient freeze technique. These active centers include singly ionized zinc vacancies (Vzn-), neutral phosphorus vacancies (VP0), and neutral phosphorus antisite defects (PGe0). The concentration of Vzn− acceptors correlates with the near-infrared optical absorption present in all ZnGeP2 crystals. A photoluminescence band near 1.4 eV is shown to be polarized and is attributed to donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) recombination. Preliminary time-decay measurements support this assignment. Observation of the EPR spectrum of Mn2+ is also reported.
Results from recent radiation damage studies in high quality BaF2 and CeF3 crystals are presented. Optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques are used to identify specific radiation damage mechanisms. Specific attention is given to the role of oxygen and hydrogen in the room temperature damage of BaF2. Also, Mn2+ ions are shown to change valence state in BaF2during room temperature irradiation. Numerous optical absorption bands are created in CeF3 during irradiations at low temperature. These bands are associated with electron traps (either F centers or Ce2+ ions) and they thermal anneal below room temperature. An EPR spectrum, assigned to F centers, is observed in low-temperature irradiated CeF3.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.