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Background: PET imaging of [11C]ABP688 shows reduced hippocampal mGluR5 availability in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients, however the relation with post-surgical outcomes is unclear. Here, we tested whether [11C]ABP688 binding in hippocampal subfields vulnerable to glutamate excitotoxicity is related to post-surgical outcome. Methods: [11C]ABP688-PET was obtained from 31 unilateral MTLE patients and 30 controls. Hippocampal subfields were automatically segmented into 1) CA1-3, 2) CA4/dentate gyrus (DG), 3) Subiculum and manually corrected. Partial volume corrected [11C]ABP688 non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) was calculated in the subfields and compared between seizure-free and non-seizure-free patients. Results: [11C]ABP688 BPND was significantly reduced in ipsilateral CA1-3 & CA4/DG (p<0.001) compared to controls. No difference was seen in Subiculum. Ipsilateral CA1-3 [11C]ABP688 BPND was lower in seizure-free (p=0.012; Engel Ia, n=13) vs non-seizure- free (Engel Ic-III, n=10) patients, and this effect was independent of subfield volume. In a subset of patients with [18F]FDG-PET, CA1-3 [11C]ABP688 BPND was significantly lower in seizure-free patients (p=0.03), while no difference was found for [18F]FDG uptake. Conclusions: Reduced CA1-3 mGluR5 availability was associated with post-surgical seizure-freedom independent of atrophy and hypometabolism. Thus, [11C]ABP688-PET may offer a potential biomarker for surgical outcomes and may be particularly relevant for pre-surgical workup in MRI- and [18F]FDG-negative MTLE patients.
Background: PET imaging of [11C]ABP688 shows reduced hippocampal mGluR5 availability in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients, however the relation with post-surgical outcomes is unclear. Here, we tested whether [11C]ABP688 binding in hippocampal subfields vulnerable to glutamate excitotoxicity is related to post-surgical outcome. Methods: [11C]ABP688-PET was obtained from 31 unilateral MTLE patients and 30 controls. Hippocampal subfields were automatically segmented into 1) CA1-3, 2) CA4/dentate gyrus (DG), and 3) Subiculum and manually corrected. Partial volume corrected [11C]ABP688 non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) was calculated in the subfields and compared between seizure-free and non-seizure-free patients. Results: [11C]ABP688 BPND was significantly reduced in ipsilateral CA1-3 & CA4/DG (p<0.001) compared to controls. No difference was seen in Subiculum. Ipsilateral CA1-3 [11C]ABP688 BPND was lower in seizure-free (p=0.012; Engel Ia, n=13) vs non-seizure-free (Engel Ic-III, n=10) patients, and this effect was independent of subfield volume. In a subset of patients with [18F]FDG-PET, CA1-3 [11C]ABP688 BPND was significantly lower in seizure-free patients (p=0.03), while no difference was found for [18F]FDG uptake. Conclusions: Reduced CA1-3 mGluR5 availability was associated with post-surgical seizure-freedom independent of atrophy and hypometabolism. Thus, [11C]ABP688-PET may offer a potential biomarker for surgical outcomes and may be particularly relevant for pre-surgical workup in MRI- and [18F]FDG-negative MTLE patients.
To describe epidemiologic and genomic characteristics of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large skilled-nursing facility (SNF), and the strategies that controlled transmission.
Design, setting, and participants:
This cohort study was conducted during March 22–May 4, 2020, among all staff and residents at a 780-bed SNF in San Francisco, California.
Contact tracing and symptom screening guided targeted testing of staff and residents; respiratory specimens were also collected through serial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in units with confirmed cases. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to characterize viral isolate lineages and relatedness. Infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions included restricting from work any staff who had close contact with a confirmed case; restricting movement between units; implementing surgical face masking facility-wide; and the use of recommended PPE (ie, isolation gown, gloves, N95 respirator and eye protection) for clinical interactions in units with confirmed cases.
Of 725 staff and residents tested through targeted testing and serial PPSs, 21 (3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive: 16 (76%) staff and 5 (24%) residents. Fifteen cases (71%) were linked to a single unit. Targeted testing identified 17 cases (81%), and PPSs identified 4 cases (19%). Most cases (71%) were identified before IPC interventions could be implemented. WGS was performed on SARS-CoV-2 isolates from 4 staff and 4 residents: 5 were of Santa Clara County lineage and the 3 others were distinct lineages.
Early implementation of targeted testing, serial PPSs, and multimodal IPC interventions limited SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the SNF.
The present study aims at measuring the association between household food insecurity and psychological distress in adolescents in Inuit communities, concurrently and overtime from childhood to adolescence.
The study used measures of internalising behaviours (anxiety, withdrawn attitude, somatic complaints and depression) as indicators of psychological distress during adolescence, a concurrent measure of household food insecurity in adolescence and an assessment of longitudinal patterns of household food insecurity from childhood to adolescence. We collected descriptive information at birth, childhood and adolescence on potential confounders.
Inuit communities of Nunavik in northern Quebec, Canada
The study consisted of 212 participants from the Nunavik Child Development Study, who have been assessed at birth, childhood (mean age = 11 years, range = 9–13 years) and adolescence (mean age = 18 years, range = 16–21 years).
Concurrent severe household food insecurity in adolescence was associated with higher measures of psychological distress: depression (βstd = 0·26, P < 0·01) and withdrawn attitude (βstd = 0·20, P = 0·04). Persistent household food insecurity (both at childhood and adolescence) was associated with higher levels of adolescent depression (βstd = 0·18, P = 0·02) and anxiety (βstd = 0·17, P = 0·03).
Adolescents from Nunavik living with higher food insecurity and those having experienced food insecurity in both childhood and adolescence were more likely to report symptoms of psychological distress. Considering the high level of distress experienced by young Inuit, existing initiatives to reduce food insecurity in Nunavik communities should be targeted to include children and adolescents.
Partial or non-adherence to medication is high amongst patients with schizophrenia. Rates of non-adherence of up to 72% have being reported depending on the method used and the patient population. Adherence is essential for optimal long-term patient outcomes in schizophrenia and failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes.
The objective of the EMEA (Europe, Middle east and Africa) ADHES survey was to collect psychiatrist's perceptions of the assessment, reasons and management of partial and non-adherence to medication.
The aim of this poster is to present psychiatrist's perceptions collected in the EMEA ADHES survey.
The survey was devised to ascertain psychiatrists’ preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of the level of adherence, reasons for non-adherence and on strategies to improve adherence.
Psychiatrists estimated that during the previous month more than half of their patients (53%) were partially or non-adherent. They estimated that as few as a third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication was able to attribute this to their non-adherence. 76% of psychiatrists assessed adherence most frequently by asking their patient explicitly. Use of long-acting treatment was the preferred choice to address adherence problems for 62% of respondents.
This EMEA-wide survey illustrates that while respondents recognised the relevance and importance of partial and non-adherence to medication, there remains a need for more proactive management of treatment adherence of patients with schizophrenia to reduce the frequency and consequences of relapse.
Partial or non-adherence to medication is high amongst patients with schizophrenia. Many and often overlapping factors are considered to impact on treatment adherence, including: patient-related (lack of insight, psychotic, negative or cognitive symptoms), treatment-related (adverse effects, insufficient efficacy), environmental (living situation, negative attitudes of relatives/friends), and physician-related (patient-healthcare professionals relationship) factors.
The objective of the ADHES EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) survey was to collect psychiatrist's perceptions of the assessment, reasons and management of partial and non-adherence to medication.
To present psychiatrist's opinion through EMEA of potential reasons for partial or non-adherence
The ADHES survey comprised 20 questions and was conducted in 36 countries across EMEA (over 4500 psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia).
Across EMEA 37% of psychiatrists viewed lack of insight as the most important reason for their patients stopping medication. 23% of psychiatrists viewed patient's feeling better and thinking it unnecessary to take medication as the most important reason for their patients stopping medication. 7% or less of psychiatrists viewed undesirable side effects, insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication.
In this survey, psychiatrists estimated that patient’s lack of insight and subjective improvement could constitute the main factors explaining poor adherence. Other factors (i.e., side effects, substance abuse) were regarded as less important. Strategies aimed at raising awareness of maintaining treatment, are warranted within EMEA, with the aim of improving clinical outcomes.
Rates of non-adherence of up to 72% have being reported, in schizophrenia, depending on the method used and the patient population. Rates of approximately 59% over 1 year have been reported for individuals with a first episode. Patients who stop medication are almost five times more likely to experience relapse than adherent patients. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes.
The EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) ADHES schizophrenia survey was a survey of psychiatrists across the region, treating patients with schizophrenia, designed to canvas their perceptions of assessment, potential reasons and management for partial or non-adherence to medication amongst their patients.
To present methodology and demographics of the EMEA ADHES survey in schizophrenia.
The EMEA ADHES survey comprised 20 questions and was conducted in 36 countries across EMEA. In addition to recording the gender, age and practice setting of the respondents, questions related directly to the issue of partial-/non-adherence in patients with schizophrenia.
The survey was conducted amongst psychiatrists (including neurologists with psychiatric background in Germany) from January - March 2010. Results were obtained from 4722 respondents. Psychiatrists perceived that during the previous month more than half of their patients (53%) were partially or non-adherent across all EMEA regions
The EMEA ADHES schizophrenia survey is a large and geographically broad survey providing insight on psychiatrists’ perceptions of the assessment, causes and management of partial and non-adherence to medication.
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) may lead to persistent depression symptoms. We conducted several pilot studies to examine the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions to deal with this issue; all showed strong effect sizes. The logical next step was to conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT).
We sought to determine the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for people with depression symptoms post-TBI (MBCT-TBI).
Using a multi-site RCT design, participants (mean age = 47) were randomized to intervention or control arms. Treatment participants received a group-based, 10-week intervention; control participants waited. Outcome measures, administered pre- and post-intervention, and after three months, included: Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS) captured present moment awareness and acceptance.
BDI-II scores decreased from 25.47 to 18.84 in treatment groups while they stayed relatively stable in control groups (respectively 27.13 to 25.00; p = .029). We did not find statistically significant differences on the PHQ-9 and SCL-90R post- treatment. However, after three months, all scores were statistically significantly lower than at baseline (ps < .01). Increases in mindfulness were associated with decreases in BDI-II scores (r = -.401, p = .025).
MBCT-TBI may alleviate depression symptoms up to three months post-intervention. Greater mindfulness may have contributed to the reduction in depression symptoms although the association does not confirm causality. More work is required to replicate these findings, identify subgroups that may better respond to the intervention, and refine the intervention to maximize its effectiveness.
Partial/non-adherence to medication is common amongst patients with schizophrenia. Nurses play an important role in assessing and managing mental health problems and are often involved in helping patients manage and adhere to their medication. As such, the perception of nurses regarding the burden and potential causes of non-adherence is vital in addressing the adherence problem.
The ADHES nurses survey collected opinions of nurses across the EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) region.
To ascertain nurses' perceptions of assessment, potential causes and management of partial/non-adherence to medication in patients with schizophrenia.
The survey was conducted from January-March 2010 in 29 countries across EMEA, comprising 14 questions addressing the issue of partial/non-adherence and the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia.
Results were obtained from 4120 respondents. Nurses estimated high levels of partial/non-adherence (mean 54%) amongst patients with schizophrenia and 85% believed improving medication adherence would have a huge/sizable impact on patient outcomes. 93% believed that continuous medication with an LAI would have long-term benefits for patients with schizophrenia, and that many patients (mean 40%) would prefer LAI medication.
Nurses recognize the issue of partial/non-adherence to medication in patients with schizophrenia. Most nurses believe patients are well informed about LAI antipsychotics, however, approximately a third of nurses believe patients to be poorly informed. There is a need to address the problem of partial/non-adherence in clinical practice with a multidisciplinary approach to avoid suboptimal treatment outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.
This paper describes the development and validation of a new 32-item test of knowledge of good clinical practice (GCP) administered to 625 clinical research coordinators. GCP training is mandated by study sponsors including the US National Institutes of Health. The effectiveness of training is rarely assessed, and the lack of validated tests is an obstacle to assessment. The GCP knowledge test was developed following evaluation of two existing widely used GCP tests to ensure it accurately reflects the content of current training. The final GCP knowledge test demonstrated good reliability (α = 0.69). It is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring knowledge of GCP. The test will be useful in assessing the effectiveness of GCP training programs as well as individuals’ mastery of GCP content.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To build a multisite de-identified database of female adolescents, aged 12–21 years (January 2011–December 2012), and their subsequent offspring through 24 months of age from electronic health records (EHRs) provided by participating Community Health. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We created a community-academic partnership that included New York City Community Health Centers (n=4) and Hospitals (n=4), The Rockefeller University, The Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and Clinical Directors Network (CDN). We used the Community-Engaged Research Navigation model to establish a multisite de-identified database extracted from EHRs of female adolescents aged 12–21 years (January 2011–December 2012) and their offspring through 24 months of age. These patients received their primary care between 2011 and 2015. Clinical data were used to explore possible associations among specific measures. We focused on the preconception, prenatal, postnatal periods, including pediatric visits up to 24 months of age. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The analysis included all female adolescents (n=122,556) and a subset of pregnant adolescents with offspring data available (n=2917). Patients were mostly from the Bronx; 43% of all adolescent females were overweight (22%) or obese (21%) and showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels compared with normal-weight adolescent females (p<0.05). This analysis was also performed looking at the nonpregnant females and the pregnant females separately. Overall, the pregnant females were older (mean age=18.3) compared with the nonpregnant females (mean age=16.5), there was a higher percentage of Hispanics among the pregnant females (58%) compared with the nonpregnant females (43.9%). There was a statistically significant association between the BMI status of mothers and infants’ birth weight, with underweight/normal-weight mothers having more low birth weight (LBW) babies and overweight/obese mothers having more large babies. The odds of having a LBW baby was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.89) lower in obese compared with normal-weight adolescent mothers. The risk of having a preterm birth before 37 weeks was found to be neutral in obese compared with normal-weight adolescent mothers (OR=0.81, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.25). Preliminary associations are similar to those reported in the published literature. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This EHR database uses available measures from routine clinical care as a “rapid assay” to explore potential associations, and may be more useful to detect the presence and direction of associations than the magnitude of effects. This partnership has engaged community clinicians, laboratory, and clinical investigators, and funders in study design and analysis, as demonstrated by the collaborative development and testing of hypotheses relevant to service delivery. Furthermore, this research and learning collaborative is examining strategies to enhance clinical workflow and data quality as well as underlying biological mechanisms. The feasibility of scaling-up these methods facilitates studying similar populations in different Health Systems, advancing point-of-care studies of natural history and comparative effectiveness research to identify service gaps, evaluate effective interventions, and enhance clinical and data quality improvement.
Accurate modelling of the interaction between fast electrons and partially ionized atoms is important for evaluating tokamak disruption mitigation schemes based on material injection. This requires accounting for the effect of screening of the impurity nuclei by the cloud of bound electrons. In this paper, we generalize the Fokker–Planck operator in a fully ionized plasma by accounting for the effect of screening. We detail the derivation of this generalized operator, and calculate the effective ion length scales, needed in the components of the collision operator, for a number of ion species commonly appearing in fusion experiments. We show that for high electric fields, the secondary runaway growth rate can be substantially larger than in a fully ionized plasma with the same effective charge, although the growth rate is significantly reduced at near-critical electric fields. Furthermore, by comparison with the Boltzmann collision operator, we show that the Fokker–Planck formalism is accurate even for large impurity content.
Apathy is a very common behavioural and psychological symptom across brain disorders. In the last decade, there have been considerable advances in research on apathy and motivation. It is thus important to revise the apathy diagnostic criteria published in 2009. The main objectives were to: a) revise the definition of apathy; b) update the list of apathy dimensions; c) operationalise the diagnostic criteria; and d) suggest appropriate assessment tools including new technologies.
The expert panel (N = 23) included researchers and health care professionals working on brain disorders and apathy, a representative of a regulatory body, and a representative of the pharmaceutical industry. The revised diagnostic criteria for apathy were developed in a two-step process. First, following the standard Delphi methodology, the experts were asked to answer questions via web-survey in two rounds. Second, all the collected information was discussed on the occasion of the 26th European Congress of Psychiatry held in Nice (France).
Apathy was defined as a quantitative reduction of goal-directed activity in comparison to the patient’s previous level of functioning (criterion A). Symptoms must persist for at least four weeks, and affect at least two of the three apathy dimensions (behaviour/cognition; emotion; social interaction; criterion B). Apathy should cause identifiable functional impairments (criterion C), and should not be fully explained by other factors, such as effects of a substance or major changes in the patient’s environment (Criterion D).
Apathy diagnostic criteria 2018.
CRITERION A: A quantitative reduction of goal-directed activity either in behavioral, cognitive, emotional or social dimensions in comparison to the patient’s previous level of functioning in these areas. These changes may be reported by the patient himself/herself or by observation of others.
CRITERION B: The presence of at least 2 of the 3 following dimensions for a period of at least four weeks and present most of the time B1. BEHAVIOUR & COGNITION Loss of, or diminished, goal-directed behaviour or cognitive activity as evidenced by at least one of the following: General level of activity: the patient has a reduced level of activity either at home or work, makes less effort to initiate or accomplish tasks spontaneously, or needs to be prompted to perform them. Persistence of activity: He/she is less persistent in maintaining an activity or conversation, finding solutions to problems or thinking of alternative ways to accomplish them if they become difficult. Making choices: He/she has less interest or takes longer to make choices when different alternatives exist (e.g., selecting TV programs, preparing meals, choosing from a menu, etc.) Interest in external issue: He/she has less interest in or reacts less to news, either good or bad, or has less interest in doing new things Personal wellbeing: He/she is less interested in his/her own health and wellbeing or personal image (general appearance, grooming, clothes, etc.). B2. EMOTION Loss of, or diminished, emotion as evidenced by at least one of the following: Spontaneous emotions: the patient shows less spontaneous (self-generated) emotions regarding their own affairs, or appears less interested in events that should matter to him/her or to people that he/she knows well. Emotional reactions to environment: He/she expresses less emotional reaction in response to positive or negative events in his/her environment that affect him/her or people he/she knows well (e.g., when things go well or bad, responding to jokes, or events on a TV program or a movie, or when disturbed or prompted to do things he/she would prefer not to do). Impact on others: He/she is less concerned about the impact of his/her actions or feelings on the people around him/her. Empathy: He/she shows less empathy to the emotions or feelings of others (e.g., becoming happy or sad when someone is happy or sad, or being moved when others need help). Verbal or physical expressions: He/she shows less verbal or physical reactions that reveal his/her emotional states. B3. SOCIAL INTERACTION Loss of, or diminished engagement in social interaction as evidenced by at least one of the following: Spontaneous social initiative: the patient takes less initiative in spontaneously proposing social or leisure activities to family or others. Environmentally stimulated social interaction: He/she participates less, or is less comfortable or more indifferent to social or leisure activities suggested by people around him/her. Relationship with family members: He/she shows less interest in family members (e.g., to know what is happening to them, to meet them or make arrangements to contact them). Verbal interaction: He/she is less likely to initiate a conversation, or he/she withdraws soon from it Homebound: He /She prefer to stays at home more frequently or longer than usual and shows less interest in getting out to meet people.
CRITERION C These symptoms (A - B) cause clinically significant impairment in personal, social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
CRITERION D The symptoms (A - B) are not exclusively explained or due to physical disabilities (e.g. blindness and loss of hearing), to motor disabilities, to a diminished level of consciousness, to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g. drug of abuse, medication), or to major changes in the patient’s environment.
The new diagnostic criteria for apathy provide a clinical and scientific framework to increase the validity of apathy as a clinical construct. This should also help to pave the path for apathy in brain disorders to be an interventional target.
Self-similar solutions to the compressible Euler equations with nonlinear conduction are considered as particular instances of unsteady radiative deflagration – or ‘ablation’ – waves with the goal of characterizing the actual hydrodynamic properties that such flows may present. The chosen family of solutions, corresponding to the ablation of an initially quiescent perfectly cold and homogeneous semi-infinite slab of inviscid compressible gas under the action of increasing external pressures and radiation fluxes, is well suited to the description of the early ablation of a target by gas-filled cavity X-rays in experiments of high energy density physics. These solutions are presently computed by means of a highly accurate numerical method for the radiative conduction model of a fully ionized plasma under the approximation of a non-isothermal leading shock wave. The resulting set of solutions is unique for its high fidelity description of the flows down to their finest scales and its extensive exploration of external pressure and radiative flux ranges. Two different dimensionless formulations of the equations of motion are put forth, yielding two classifications of these solutions which are used for carrying out a quantitative hydrodynamic analysis of the corresponding flows. Based on the main flow characteristic lengths and on standard characteristic numbers (Mach, Péclet, stratification and Froude numbers), this analysis points out the compressibility and inhomogeneity of the present ablative waves. This compressibility is further analysed to be too high, whether in terms of flow speed or stratification, for the low Mach number approximation, often used in hydrodynamic stability analyses of ablation fronts in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), to be relevant for describing these waves, and more specifically those with fast expansions which are of interest in ICF. Temperature stratification is also shown to induce, through the nonlinear conductivity, supersonic upstream propagation of heat-flux waves, besides a modified propagation of quasi-isothermal acoustic waves, in the flow conduction regions. This description significantly departs from the commonly admitted depiction of a quasi-isothermal conduction region where wave propagation is exclusively ascribed to isothermal acoustics and temperature fluctuations are only diffused.
Measurements are reported of the target neutralization current, the target charge, and the tangential component of the magnetic field generated as a result of laser–target interaction by pulses with the energy in the range of 45–92 mJ on target and the pulse duration from 39 to 1000 fs. The experiment was performed at the Eclipse facility in CELIA, Bordeaux. The aim of the experiment was to extend investigations performed for the thick (mm scale) targets to the case of thin (μm thickness) targets in a way that would allow for a straightforward comparison of the results. We found that thin foil targets tend to generate 20–50% higher neutralization current and the target charge than the thick targets. The measurement of the tangential component of the magnetic field had shown that the initial spike is dominated by the 1 ns pulse consistent with the 1 ns pulse of the neutralization current, but there are some differences between targets of different types on sub-ns scale, which is an effect going beyond a simple picture of the target acting as an antenna. The sub-ns structure appears to be reproducible to surprising degree. We found that there is in general a linear correlation between the maximum value of the magnetic field and the maximum neutralization current, which supports the target-antenna picture, except for pulses 100s of fs long.
Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.
Previous research has shown relatively diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation and heightened psychophysiological responses during the recollection of personal events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the origin of these abnormalities is unknown. Twin studies provide the opportunity to determine whether such abnormalities reflect familial vulnerabilities, result from trauma exposure, or are acquired characteristics of PTSD.
In this case–control twin study, 26 male identical twin pairs (12 PTSD; 14 non-PTSD) discordant for PTSD and combat exposure recalled and imagined trauma-unrelated stressful and neutral life events using a standard script-driven imagery paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent skin conductance measurement.
Diminished activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery was observed in the individuals with PTSD, relative to other groups.
Diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery may be an acquired characteristic of PTSD. If replicated, this finding could be used prospectively to inform diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.