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We highlight the historical and contemporary policies that govern paleontological research on federally recognized Native American lands. The United States has a long history of fossil dispossession from Indigenous Peoples, and federal policies surrounding the management of Native American lands (i.e., reservations), and the geological resources therein, have changed through time. These changes reflect shifting popular and political ideologies regarding Native American nations’ sovereignty and self-governance. As of 2022, the United States has a government-to-government relationship with federally recognized Tribal entities, but that has not always been the case. Historians have divided post-contact Native American federal policy into distinct eras: Colonial Times to 1820, Native American Removal and Reservation (1820–1887), Allotments and Attempted Assimilation (1887–1934), Reorganization and Preservation (1934–1953), Termination and Relocation (1953–1968), and Tribal Self-Determination (1968–present). Documentation of how the federal policies from each of these eras continue to impact current paleontological research is limited. We summarize major legislative actions, court cases, and historical events that have affected paleontological resource management in Native American territory. We use this historical context to identify federal policy gaps and highlight legal nuances associated with fossil collection and ownership, particularly given the importance of fossils to some Native Americans’ cultural patrimony. Finally, we explore how these gaps affect scientific research and highlight best practices for conducting paleontological research on vertebrate, invertebrate, and paleobotanical body and trace fossils using the CARE (Collective Benefit, Authority to Control, Responsibility, Ethics) Principles for Indigenous Data Governance (https://www.gida-global.org/care).
Adhesive contact between a thin elastic sheet and a substrate arises in a range of biological, physical and technological applications. By considering the dynamics of this process that naturally couples fluid flow, long-wavelength elastic deformations and microscopic adhesion, we analyse a sixth-order thin-film equation for the short-time dynamics of the onset of adhesion and the long-time dynamics of a steadily propagating adhesion front. Numerical solutions corroborate scaling laws and asymptotic analyses for the characteristic waiting time for adhesive contact and for the speed of the adhesion front. A similarity analysis of the governing partial differential equation further allows us to determine the shape of a fluid-filled blister ahead of the adhesion front. Finally, our analysis reveals a near-singular behaviour at the moving elastohydrodynamic contact line with an effective boundary condition that might be useful in other related problems.
Due to climate change and habitat conversion, estimates of the resulting levels of species extinction over the next century are alarming. Devising conservation solutions will require many different approaches, including examining the extinction processes of recently extinct species. Given that parrots are one of the most threatened groups of birds, information regarding parrot extinction is pressing. While most recent parrot extinctions have been island endemics, the Carolina Parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis had an 18th-century range covering nearly half of the present-day United States, yet mostly disappeared by the end of the 19th century. Despite a great deal of speculation, the major cause of its extinction remains unknown. Establishing the date when a species went extinct is one of the first steps in determining what caused their extinction. While there have been estimates of their extinction date, these analyses used a limited dataset and did not include observational data. We used a recently published, extensive dataset of Carolina Parakeet specimens and observations combined with a Bayesian extinction estimating model to determine the most likely extinction dates. By considering each of the two subspecies independently, we found that they went extinct ˜30 years apart: the western subspecies C. c. ludovicianus going extinct around 1914 and the eastern subspecies C. c. carolinensis either in the late 1930s or mid-1940s. Had we only considered all observations together, this pattern would have been obscured, possibly missing a major clue in solving the mystery of the parakeet’s extinction. Since the Carolina Parakeet was a wide-ranging species that went extinct during a period of rapid agricultural and industrial expansion, conditions that mirror those occurring in many parts of the world where parrot diversity is highest, any progress we make in unraveling the mystery of their disappearance may be vital to modern conservation efforts.
To assess extent of a healthcare-associated outbreak of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to evaluate the effectiveness of infection control measures, including universal masking.
Outbreak investigation including 4 large-scale point-prevalence surveys.
Integrated VA healthcare system with 2 facilities and 330 beds.
Index patient and 250 exposed patients and staff.
We identified exposed patients and staff and classified them as probable and confirmed cases based on symptoms and testing. We performed a field investigation and an assessment of patient and staff interactions to develop probable transmission routes. Infection prevention interventions included droplet and contact precautions, employee quarantine, and universal masking with medical and cloth face masks. We conducted 4 point-prevalence surveys of patient and staff subsets using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2.
Among 250 potentially exposed patients and staff, 14 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were identified. Patient roommates and staff with prolonged patient contact were most likely to be infected. The last potential date of transmission from staff to patient was day 22, the day universal masking was implemented. Subsequent point-prevalence surveys in 126 patients and 234 staff identified 0 patient cases and 5 staff cases of COVID-19, without evidence of healthcare-associated transmission.
Universal masking with medical face masks was effective in preventing further spread of SARS-CoV-2 in our facility in conjunction with other traditional infection prevention measures.
Background: Vertical interventions in public health are disease focused, whereas horizontal interventions are systems based. The new concept of “diagonal interventions” merging these 2 approaches is also applicable to infection prevention (IP). During fiscal year (FY) 2016, our facility identified 14 central-line–associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs), resulting in a rate of 1.44 cases per 1,000 catheter days, twice that of FY2015 (0.75 cases per 1,000 catheter days). Methods: Focusing on a horizontal “systems building” approach, the IP team used previously developed informal relationships to mobilize a formal multidisciplinary team comprised of IP, nursing educators, the intravenous therapy team, and frontline staff. Initially charged with implementation of disinfecting caps for needleless connectors, the IP team capitalized on this multidisciplinary resource to launch a multifaceted communication and education campaign supporting CLABSI-specific interventions. For vertical interventions, an IP risk assessment revealed variations in care and maintenance of central lines and the need for staff education. A literature search was conducted to identify evidence-based strategies for reducing CLABSIs, leading to the development of a nursing-led bundle of the following elements: (1) education on CDC hand hygiene guidelines, (2) central-line competency validation and assessment for nurses on hire and annually, (3) standardized processes across all wards for central-line dressing changes (“timed on Tuesdays”), and (4) a pilot program for disinfecting caps on 3 inpatient wards. The IP team identified CLABSIs using standard NHSN definitions. Catheter days were obtained on each inpatient ward. Unit-specific rates were calculated per 1,000 catheter days. Mann-Kendall Test was used to assess rate trends over time, whereas the Fisher exact test was used for rate comparisons. A P < .05 was considered significant. Results: CLABSI rates decreased from 1.44 in FY2016 to 0.12 in FY2019 (Kendall τ = −0.5; P < .001) (Fig. 1). During the 3-month pilot phase of disinfecting caps, no CLABSIs were identified on 3 intervention wards versus 3 CLABSIs on control wards (rate, 0 vs 2.57; P = .27) and 1 CLABSI in the 3-month baseline period prior to the intervention (0 vs 0.40; P > .99). Disinfecting caps were expanded house-wide beginning in FY2018. The multidisciplinary team evolved into a sustained collaborative (“Scrub Club”) meeting biweekly. They have now broadened their focus to quality improvement initiatives for multiple healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Conclusions: The IP team has traditionally utilized vertical models of intervention. The use of “diagonal” models that incorporate horizontal health systems strengthening can transform multidisciplinary partnerships into long-term collaboratives essential for sustained reduction of HAIs.
Perinatal stroke occurs around the time of birth and leads to lifelong neurological disabilities including hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized our understanding of developmental neuroplasticity following early injury, quantifying volumetric, structural, functional, and metabolic compensatory changes after perinatal stroke. Such techniques can also be used to investigate how the brain responds to treatment (interventional neuroplasticity). Here, we review the current state of knowledge of how established and emerging neuroimaging modalities are informing neuroplasticity models in children with perinatal stroke. Specifically, we review structural imaging characterizing lesion characteristics and volumetrics, diffusion tensor imaging investigating white matter tracts and networks, task-based functional MRI for localizing function, resting state functional imaging for characterizing functional connectomes, and spectroscopy examining neurometabolic changes. Key challenges and exciting avenues for future investigations are also considered.
Prolactin (PRL) data from adolescents treated with olanzapine are presented.
Data from 454 adolescents (13-18, mean=15.9 yrs) with schizophrenia or bipolar mania were pooled from 4 olanzapine (2.5-20.0mg/day) studies (4-32 weeks; 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies [combined for acute phase endpoint PRL levels] with open-label extensions; 2 open-label studies). Age- and sex-specific Covance reference ranges defined normal PRL; categorical increases were based on multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN). Baseline-to-endpoint PRL changes in adolescents were compared with data pooled from 84 olanzapine clinical trials in adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Olanzapine-treated adolescents had mean PRL increases at both the acute (11.4μg/L) and open-label endpoints (4.7μg/L). Of those patients with normal PRL levels at baseline (N=311), high PRL occurred in 54.7% at anytime; 32.2% at endpoint. The percentage of patients in which PRL levels shifted from normal-to-abnormal was smaller at endpoint than at anytime during treatment; 26.7% shifted to a higher category. Among patients with normal baseline PRL, 32.7% remained <=1X ULN; 32.3% increased to 1¬<=2X; 6.0%, >2-<=3X; and 1.2%, >3X at anytime; 4.6% had at >=1 potentially PRL-related adverse event. Adolescents had significantly higher mean changes at endpoint (p=.004), and a greater incidence of high PRL levels at anytime during olanzapine treatment (p<.001) versus adults.
Incidence of high PRL was significantly higher, and mean increases in PRL were significantly greater in adolescents versus adults. Mean increases and high PRL incidence were lower at the open-label compared with the acute phase endpoint.
The changes in metabolic parameters in olanzapine-treated adolescents were examined.
Data from 454 adolescents (13–18, mean=15.9 years) with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder were pooled from 4 olanzapine (2.5–20.0mg/day) studies (4–32 weeks). Changes in metabolic parameters in adolescents were compared with those of olanzapine-treated adults (pooled from 84 clinical trials); changes in weight and BMI were compared with US age- and sex-adjusted standardized growth curves.
Olanzapine-treated adolescents had significant increases from baseline-to-endpoint in fasting glucose (p=.021); total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides (p<.001); and significant decreases in HDL (p<.001). Significantly more adolescents gained >=7% of their baseline weight versus adults (65.1% vs. 35.6%, p<.001); mean change from baseline-to-endpoint in weight was significantly greater in adolescents (7.0 vs. 3.3kg, p<.001). Adolescents had significantly lower mean changes from baseline-to-endpoint in fasting glucose (0.3 vs. 0.1mmol/L, p=.002) and triglycerides (0.3 vs. 0.2mmol/L, p=.007) versus adults. Significantly more adults experienced treatment-emergent normal-to-high changes at anytime in fasting glucose (4.8% vs. 1.2%, p=.033), total cholesterol (6.9% vs. 1.1%, p=.001), LDL (5.8% vs. 1.5%, p=.014), and triglycerides (25.7% vs. 17.4%, p=.030). Compared with standardized growth curves, olanzapine-treated adolescents had greater increases from baseline-to-endpoint in weight (1.0 vs. 7.1kg, p<.001), height (0.5 vs. 0.7cm, p<.001), and BMI (0.2 vs. 2.2kg/m2, p<.001).
Olanzapine-treated adolescents may gain significantly more weight compared with adults, but may have smaller changes in other metabolic parameters. Clinicians may want to consider both efficacy and changes in metabolic parameters when selecting treatment options for individual adolescent patients.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alternative protocols to improve oocyte selection, embryo activation and genomic reprogramming on in vitro development of porcine embryos cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In Experiment 1, in vitro-matured oocytes were selected by exposure to a hyperosmotic sucrose solution prior to micromanipulation. In Experiment 2, an alternative chemical activation protocol using a zinc chelator as an adjuvant (ionomycin + N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) + N-6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP)) was compared with a standard protocol (ionomycin + 6-DMAP) for the activation of porcine oocytes or SCNT embryos. In Experiment 3, presumptive cloned zygotes were incubated after chemical activation in a histone deacetylase inhibitor (Scriptaid) for 15 h, with the evaluation of embryo yield and total cell number in day 7 blastocysts. In Experiment 1, cleavage rates tended to be higher in sucrose-treated oocytes than controls (123/199, 61.8% vs. 119/222, 53.6%, respectively); however, blastocyst rates were similar between groups. In Experiment 2, cleavage rates were higher in zygotes treated with TPEN than controls but no difference in blastocyst rates between groups occurred. For Experiment 3, the exposure to Scriptaid did not improve embryo development after cloning. Nevertheless, the total number of cells was higher in cloned zygotes treated with Scriptaid than SCNT controls. In conclusion, oocyte selection by sucrose as well as treatments with zinc chelator and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases did not significantly improve blastocyst yield in cloned and parthenotes. However, the histone deacetylases inhibitor produced a significant improvement in the blastocyst quality.
The long-term effects of pediatric concussion on white matter microstructure are poorly understood. This study investigated long-term changes in white matter diffusion properties of the corpus callosum in youth several years after concussion.
Participants were 8–19 years old with a history of concussion (n = 36) or orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 21). Mean time since injury for the sample was 2.6 years (SD = 1.6). Participants underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, completed cognitive testing, and rated their post-concussion symptoms. Measures of diffusivity (fractional anisotropy, mean, axial, and radial diffusivity) were extracted from white matter tracts in the genu, body, and splenium regions of the corpus callosum. The genu and splenium tracts were further subdivided into 21 equally spaced regions along the tract and diffusion values were extracted from each of these smaller regions.
White matter tracts in the genu, body, and splenium did not differ in diffusivity properties between youth with a history of concussion and those with a history of OI. No significant group differences were found in subdivisions of the genu and splenium after correcting for multiple comparisons. Diffusion metrics did not significantly correlate with symptom reports or cognitive performance.
These findings suggest that at approximately 2.5 years post-injury, youth with prior concussion do not have differences in their corpus callosum microstructure compared to youth with OI. Although these results are promising from the perspective of long-term recovery, further research utilizing longitudinal study designs is needed to confirm the long-term effects of pediatric concussion on white matter microstructure.
Early irritability predicts a broad spectrum of psychopathology spanning both internalizing and externalizing disorders, rather than any particular disorder or group of disorders (i.e. multifinality). Very few studies, however, have examined the developmental mechanisms by which it leads to such phenotypically diverse outcomes. We examined whether variation in the diurnal pattern of cortisol moderates developmental pathways between preschool irritability and the subsequent emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms 9 years later.
When children were 3 years old, mothers were interviewed about children's irritability and completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology. Six years later, children collected saliva samples at wake-up and bedtime on three consecutive days. Diurnal cortisol patterns were modeled as latent difference scores between evening and morning samples. When children were approximately 12 years old, mothers again completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology.
Among children with higher levels of irritability at age 3, a steeper diurnal cortisol slope at age 9 predicted greater internalizing symptoms and irritability at age 12, whereas a blunted slope at age 9 predicted greater externalizing symptoms at age 12, adjusting for baseline and concurrent symptoms.
Our results suggest that variation in stress system functioning can predict and differentiate developmental trajectories of early irritability that are relatively more internalizing v. those in which externalizing symptoms dominate in pre-adolescence.
Recent European studies suggest that fathers’ leave-taking may contribute to parental relationship stability. Paternity leave-taking may signal a commitment by fathers toward a greater investment in family life, which may reduce the burden on mothers and strengthen parental relationships. This study uses longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) to analyze the association between paternity leave-taking and relationship stability in the United States. Results indicate that paternity leave-taking, and taking relatively short leaves (i.e. two weeks or less) in particular, is associated with greater relationship stability. These findings increase our understanding of the potential benefits of paternity leave, and can inform policy decisions that aim to increase family stability.
Sugarbeet growers only recently have combined ethofumesate, S-metolachlor, and dimethenamid-P in a weed control system for waterhemp control. Sugarbeet plant density, visible stature reduction, root yield, percent sucrose content, and recoverable sucrose were measured in field experiments at five environments between 2014 and 2016. Sugarbeet stand density and stature reduction occurred in some but not all environments. Stand density was reduced with PRE application of S-metolachlor at 1.60 kg ai ha–1 and S-metolachlor at 0.80 kg ha–1 + ethofumesate at 1.68 kg ai ha–1 alone or followed by POST applications of dimethenamid-P at 0.95 kg ai ha–1. Sugarbeet visible stature was reduced when dimethenamid-P followed PRE treatments. Stature reduction was greatest with ethofumesate at 1.68 or 4.37 kg ha–1 PRE and S-metolachlor at 0.80 kg ha–1 + ethofumesate at 1.68 kg ha–1 PRE followed by dimethenamid-P at 0.95 kg ha–1 POST. Stature reduction ranged from 0 to 32% 10 d after treatment (DAT), but sugarbeet recovered quickly and visible injury was negligible 23 DAT. Although root yield and recoverable sucrose were similar across herbicide treatments and environments, we caution against the use of S-metolachlor at 0.80 kg ha–1 + ethofumesate at 1.68 kg ai ha–1 PRE followed by dimethenamid-P at 0.95 kg ha–1 in sugarbeet.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To evaluate the ability of various techniques to track changes in body fluid volumes before and after a rapid infusion of saline. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eight healthy participants (5M; 3F) completed baseline measurements of 1) total body water using ethanol dilution and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 2) blood volume, plasma volume and red blood cell (RBC) volume using carbon monoxide rebreathe technique and I-131 albumin dilution. Subsequently, 30mL saline/kg body weight was administered intravenously over 20 minutes after which BIA and ethanol dilution were repeated. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: On average, 2.29±0.35 L saline was infused with an average increase in net fluid input-output (I/O) of 1.56±0.29 L. BIA underestimated measured I/O by −3.4±7.9%, while ethanol dilution did not demonstrate a measurable change in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe differed from I-131 albumin dilution measurements of blood, plasma and RBC volumes by +0.6±2.8%, −5.4±3.6%, and +11.0±4.7%, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: BIA is capable of tracking modest changes in total body water. Carbon monoxide rebreathe appears to be a viable alternative for the I-131 albumin dilution technique to determine blood volume. Together, these two techniques may be useful in monitoring fluid status in patients with impaired fluid regulation.
In this article, we describe the results of the second phase of a randomized controlled trial of Minding the Baby (MTB), an interdisciplinary reflective parenting intervention for infants and their families. Young first-time mothers living in underserved, poor, urban communities received intensive home visiting services from a nurse and social worker team for 27 months, from pregnancy to the child's second birthday. Results indicate that MTB mothers' levels of reflective functioning was more likely to increase over the course of the intervention than were those of control group mothers. Likewise, infants in the MTB group were significantly more likely to be securely attached, and significantly less likely to be disorganized, than infants in the control group. We discuss our findings in terms of their contribution to understanding the impacts and import of intensive intervention with vulnerable families during the earliest stages of parenthood in preventing the intergenerational transmission of disrupted relationships and insecure attachment.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Background: Delirium is a well described form of acute brain organ dysfunction characterized by decreased or increased movement, changes in attention and concentration as well as perceptual disturbances (i.e., hallucinations) and delusions. Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome traditionally described in patients with severe psychiatric illness, can present as phenotypically similar to delirium and is characterized by increased, decreased and/or abnormal movements, staring, rigidity, and mutism. Delirium and catatonia can co-occur in the setting of medical illness, but no studies have explored this relationship by age. Our objective was to assess whether advancing age and the presence of catatonia are associated with delirium. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: We prospectively enrolled critically ill patients at a single institution who were on a ventilator or in shock and evaluated them daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment for the ICU and for catatonia using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Measures of association (OR) were assessed with a simple logistic regression model with catatonia as the independent variable and delirium as the dependent variable. Effect measure modification by age was assessed using a Likelihood ratio test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: We enrolled 136 medical and surgical critically ill patients with 452 matched (concomitant) delirium and catatonia assessments. Median age was 59 years (IQR: 52–68). In our cohort of 136 patients, 58 patients (43%) had delirium only, 4 (3%) had catatonia only, 42 (31%) had both delirium and catatonia, and 32 (24%) had neither. Age was significantly associated with prevalent delirium (i.e., increasing age associated with decreased risk for delirium) (p=0.04) after adjusting for catatonia severity. Catatonia was significantly associated with prevalent delirium (p<0.0001) after adjusting for age. Peak delirium risk was for patients aged 55 years with 3 or more catatonic signs, who had 53.4 times the odds of delirium (95% CI: 16.06, 176.75) than those with no catatonic signs. Patients 70 years and older with 3 or more catatonia features had half this risk. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Conclusions: Catatonia is significantly associated with prevalent delirium even after controlling for age. These data support an inverted U-shape risk of delirium after adjusting for catatonia. This relationship and its clinical ramifications need to be examined in a larger sample, including patients with dementia. Additionally, we need to assess which acute brain syndrome (delirium or catatonia) develops first.
To investigate the influence of carbonate on the formation of goethite and lepidocrocite, ∼200 samples were synthesized by oxidizing FeCl2 solutions with air/CO2 gas mixtures at ambient temperature and pH 6 and 7. The proportion of lepidocrocite in the lepidocrocite/goethite mixtures (Lp/(Lp + Gt)) decreased from 100 to 0% with increasing in solution and with decreasing average oxidation rate (AOR). These two parameters explained 81% of the variation of Lp/(Lp + Gt)). At a given , more goethite was formed at pH 6 than at pH 7. The Lp + Gt mixtures contained 0–8 mg g−1 carbon (Ct) which could not be removed by washing. Ct reached apparent saturation at a equilibrium concentration of ∼6–8 and 60–80 mmol l−1 at pH 6 and pH 7, respectively. In a plot of Ct vs. Lp/(Lp + Gt) all data fell on the same line irrespective of oxidation parameters (pH, AOR). IR spectra showed two broad bands at ∼1300 and 1500 cm−1 which can be assigned to distorted carbonate adsorbed at the goethite surface. Identical bands were also found in a young, poorly crystalline goethite formed from coal mine drainage in Ohio. It is suggested that carbonate anions direct the polymerization of the double bands of FeO3(OH)3 octahedra common to both minerals toward a corner sharing arrangement, and thereby to goethite, whereas chloride permits edge-sharing as in lepidocrocite.
At 25°C, synthetic schwertmannite, a common iron compound in acid mine drainage, completely converted in water to a sulphate-containing goethite within ~100 days. The rate of transformation doubled as the pH increased from 4.0 to 7.2. In deviation from its normal acicular habit, the goethite appeared as spherical aggregates.
Schwertmannite is a new oxyhydroxysulphate of iron from the Pyhäisalmi sulphide mine, Province of Oulu, Finland. It occurs there, and elsewhere, as an ochreous precipitate from acid, sulphate-rich waters. Associated minerals at other localities may include jarosite, natrojarosite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Schwertmannite is a poorly crystalline, yellowish brown mineral with a fibrous morphology under the electron microscope. A high specific surface area in the range of 100 to 200 m2/g, rapid dissolution in cold, 5 M HCl or in ammonium oxalate at pH 3, and pronounced X-ray diffraction line broadening are consistent with its poorly crystalline character.
Colour parameters for the type specimen as related to CIE illuminant C are L* = 53.85, a* = + 15.93, and b* = +47.96. Chemical analysis gives Fe2O3, 62.6; SO3, 12.7; CO2, 1.5; H2O−, 10.2; H2O+, 12.9; total 99.9 wt.%. These data yield an empirical unit cell formula of Fe16O16(OH)9.6(SO4)3.2·10H2O after exclusion of CO2 and H2O−. The most general simplified formula is Fe16O16(OH)y(SO4)z·nH2O, where 16 − y = 2z and 2.0 ⩽ z ⩽ 3.5. Schwertmannite has a structure akin to that of akaganéite (nominally β-FeOOH) with a doubled c dimension. Its X-ray powder diffraction pattern consists of eight broad peaks [dobs in (Iobs) (hkl)] 4.86(37)(200,111); 3.39(46)(310); 2.55(100)(212); 2.28(23)(302); 1.95(12)(412); 1.66(21)(522); 1.51(24)(004); and 1.46(18)(204,542), giving a = 10.66(4), c = 6.04(1) Å, and V = 686(6) Å3 for a primitive, tetragonal unit cell. The probable space group is P4/m. Upon heating, schwertmannite transforms to hematite with Fe2(SO4)3 occurring as an intermediate phase. Bidentate bridging complexes between Fe and SO4 are apparent in infrared spectra. Mössbauer data show the Fe in schwertmannite to be exclusively trivalent and in octahedral coordination; it has a Néel temperature of 75 ± 5 K and a saturation magnetic hyperfine field of about 45.6 T. Pronounced asymmetry of the Mössbauer spectra indicates different locations for Fe atoms relative to SO4 groups in the structure. The name is for Udo Schwertmann, professor of soil science at the Technical University of Munich.
The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally tailored lifestyle intervention, ¡Vivir Mi Vida! (Live My Life!). This intervention was designed to improve the health and well-being of high risk late middle-aged Latino adults and to be implemented in a rural primary care system.
Rural-dwelling Latino adults experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with their urban counterparts, a disparity exacerbated by limited access to healthcare services. Very few lifestyle interventions exist that are both culturally sensitive and compatible for delivery within a non-metropolitan primary care context.
Participants were 37 Latino, Spanish-speaking adults aged 50–64-years-old, recruited from a rural health clinic in the Antelope Valley of California. ¡Vivir Mi Vida! was delivered by a community health worker-occupational therapy team over a 16-week period. Subjective health, lifestyle factors, and cardiometabolic measures were collected pre- and post-intervention. Follow-up interviews and focus groups were held to collect information related to the subjective experiences of key stakeholders and participants.
Participants demonstrated improvements in systolic blood pressure, sodium and saturated fat intake, and numerous patient-centered outcomes ranging from increased well-being to reduced stress. Although participants were extremely satisfied with the program, stakeholders identified a number of implementation challenges. The findings suggest that a tailored lifestyle intervention led by community health workers and occupational therapists is feasible to implement in a primary care setting and can improve health outcomes in rural-dwelling, late middle-aged Latinos.