To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The density and salinity of High Salinity Shelf Water, a key component of Antarctic Bottom Water emanating from the Ross Sea, are intensified by brine rejection induced by ice formation within the Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya. Ocean mooring data from 2007, meteorological observations from automatic weather stations and a satellite-derived history of the opening of TNB polynya delineate variability in water column salinity linked to atmospheric forcing, with a period on the order of 10 days. Lagged correlation analysis indicates that on average salinity response lags the polynya opening by 2 days and the wind forcing by 5 days. We find stronger correlations of salinity with the wind during March through May and with the polynya open-water fraction during June through October, with decreasing lags in the latter period. A one-dimensional mixed-layer model incorporating thermodynamic ice formation captures the oscillations in salinity. A process study shows that the variability in the polynya open-water fraction governs the final salinity attained by the model as well as the salinity cycling. Variability in surface heat fluxes modulates that effect. Our work suggests that there is a more complex relationship between salinity, the polynya open-water fraction, and atmospheric forcing than previously suggested.
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a common threat to cereal crops in which the grain maturation phase takes place under rainy, moist conditions. Susceptibility to PHS is higher in sorghum genotypes displaying low levels of seed dormancy before harvest maturity. Other attributes such as glume or panicle morphology may also affect susceptibility to PHS. Breeding for resistance to PHS in grain sorghum requires the identification of grain physiological and morphological attributes affecting this trait, and a protocol for phenotyping and rating genotypes according to their susceptibility to PHS. In this work, we tested germination under laboratory conditions using detached grains and intact panicles for a panel of 20 sorghum genotypes including 11 parental lines, 6 hybrids and 3 reference inbred lines with contrasting PHS response. Records for natural sprouting in the field for these genotypes were also included in the analysis. Multivariate analyses of germination data allowed separation of genotypes into two major categories (resistant and susceptible to PHS). Laboratory germination data correlated significantly with PHS in the field. In most genotypes, the glumes had a significant, inhibitory effect on germination. The low levels of grain dormancy were observed among high tannin backgrounds, and vice versa, indicating that a pigmented testa alone does not provide resistance to PHS. Altogether, the phenotyping protocol allowed the classification of sorghum genotypes according to their susceptibility to PHS and the identification of different attributes useful for breeding for PHS resistance in this crop.
Examine the evidence for a relationship between pregabalin effect on pain and baseline anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia (FM).
Chronic pain and concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in patients with FM, as well as in other chronic pain disorders. Pregabalin was effective for treating pain in FM patients in three parallel group RCTs (105, 1056, 1077) where data for anxiety and depressive symptom levels were collected.
Patients meeting ACR criteria for FM with a pain VAS score ≥40 mm were followed for 8-14 weeks in 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Patients (N=2022) received 150, 300, 450 or 600mg/d pregabalin or placebo. The primary efficacy parameter was change in endpoint Mean Pain Score (MPS) (range 0 [no pain]-10[worst possible pain]). Regression analyses evaluated whether changes in pain bore any relation to the baseline Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS-A) and (HADS-D) levels.
Pregabalin 300, 450, and 600 mg/d, but not 150 mg/d, showed statistically significant improvements in pain compared with placebo (p<0.0001). For each pregabalin treatment group, improvements in pain at endpoint were not found to have a statistically significant association with baseline levels of anxiety or depressive symptoms. Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with known side effects of pregabalin; dizziness and somnolence, mild to moderate in intensity, were the most frequently reported AEs for pregabalin patients.
Pregabalin treatment demonstrated significant improvements in pain regardless of baseline anxiety or depressive symptom levels for patients with FM.
For forty years, successive editions of Ethical Theory and Business have helped to define the field of business ethics. The 10th edition reflects the current, multidisciplinary nature of the field by explicitly embracing a variety of perspectives on business ethics, including philosophy, management, and legal studies. Chapters integrate theoretical readings, case studies, and summaries of key legal cases to guide students to a rich understanding of business ethics, corporate responsibility, and sustainability. The 10th edition has been entirely updated, ensuring that students are exposed to key ethical questions in the current business environment. New chapters cover the ethics of IT, ethical markets, and ethical management and leadership. Coverage includes climate change, sustainability, international business ethics, sexual harassment, diversity, and LGBTQ discrimination. New case studies draw students directly into recent business ethics controversies, such as sexual harassment at Fox News, consumer fraud at Wells Fargo, and business practices at Uber.