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The inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense has the potential to reduce the use of mineral fertilizers with efficient capacity to promote plant growth and yield. Most studies on the Azospirillum–plant association have been conducted on cereals and annual grasses. More studies are needed in perennial pastures, such as bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) that require substantial nitrogen (N) fertilization to maximize their production potential. Therefore, pastures based on Tifton 85 bermudagrass in association with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), which were inoculated with A. brasilense and fertilized with increasing amounts of N fertilizer and grazed by lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. Three grazing systems were evaluated: (i) Tifton 85, inoculated + 180 kg N/ha per year; (ii) Tifton 85 + 230 kg N/ha per year; and (iii) Tifton 85 + 280 kg N/ha per year. Forage samples were collected before and after grazing to evaluate the responses of the plants and animals. The forage yields of the systems were 21.0, 20.8 and 22.1 t DM/ha per year and the stocking rates were 3.9, 3.8 and 4.0 animal unit/ha per day, respectively. Crude protein, total digestible nutrients and neutral detergent fibre concentrations were 162, 560 and 667 g/kg, respectively. Inoculation in pastures planted with Tifton 85 bermudagrass in combination with ryegrass (plus 180 kg N/ha per year) had a positive effect, providing forage yield and nutritional value equivalent to those with fertilization with 230 kg N/ha per year.
The parasite biodiversity of mouse opossums in Brazil remains incompletely explored. We describe a new species of Subulura (Ascaridida: Subuluroidea) from the large intestine of the white-bellied woolly mouse opossum, Marmosa constantiae, based on the results of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also partially sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (MT-CO1) gene of the new species, using molecular phylogenetic analyses to determine its relationships within the Subuluroidea superfamily. As molecular data on subuluroid species are extremely limited, few inferences could be drawn from our phylogenies. Our SEM observations showed the detailed morphology of the cephalic extremity, precloacal pseudo-sucker, caudal papillae, phasmids and vulva. Subulura eliseae sp. n. differs from the other four Subulura parasites species of marsupials by the number of caudal papillae and the structure dimensions, and size of the spicule. Moreover, S. eliseae sp. n. has ten pairs of caudal papillae, which is unique compared to other species. We present morphometric and molecular data on this new species, contributing to future studies on subuluroids.
With natural hazards increasing in frequency and severity and global population aging, preparedness efforts must evolve to address older adults’ risks in disasters. This study elucidates potential contributors to the elevated older adult mortality risk following Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico through an examination of community stakeholder preparedness, response, and recovery experiences.
In April 2018, qualitative interviews (n = 22) were conducted with stakeholders in 7 Puerto Rican municipalities. Interview transcripts were deductively and inductively coded and analyzed to identify salient topics and themes representing participant response patterns.
The hurricane’s detrimental impact on older adult health emerged as a prominent finding. Through 6 months post-hurricane, many older adults experienced unmet needs that contributed to declining physical and emotional health, inadequate non-communicable disease management, social isolation, financial strain, and excess morbidity and mortality. These needs were predominantly consequences of lengthy public service gaps, unsafe living conditions, interrupted health care, and the incongruence between preparedness and event severity.
In a landscape of increasing natural hazard frequency and magnitude, a pattern of older adult risk has become increasingly clear. Study findings compel practitioners to engage in natural hazard preparedness planning, research, and policy-making that considers the multiple facets of older adult well-being.
This study aimed to examine factors that may have contributed to community disaster resilience following Hurricane Maria in Puerto Rico.
In April 2018, qualitative interviews (n = 22) were conducted with stakeholders in 7 Puerto Rican municipalities (9% of total). Transcripts were deductively and inductively coded and analyzed to identify salient topics and themes, then examined according to strategic themes from the Federal Emergency Management Association’s (FEMA) Whole Community Approach.
Municipal preparedness efforts were coordinated, community-based, leveraged community assets, and prioritized vulnerable populations. Strategies included (1) multi-sectoral coordination and strategic personnel allocation; (2) neighborhood leader designation as support contacts; (3) leveraging of community leader expertise and social networks to protect vulnerable residents; (4) Censuses of at-risk groups, health professionals, and first responders; and (5) outreach for risk communication and locally tailored protective measures. In the context of collapsed telecommunications, communities implemented post-disaster strategies to facilitate communication with the Puerto Rican Government, between local first responders, and to keep residents informed, including the use of: (1) police radios; (2) vehicles with loudspeakers; (3) direct interpersonal communication; and (4) solar-powered Internet radio stations.
Adaptive capacities and actions of Puerto Rican communities exemplify the importance of local solutions in disasters. Expanded research is recommended to better understand contributors to disaster resilience.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the necessary social isolation and distancing measures – that were adopted to prevent spreading the virus, including the suspension of university classes – negatively impacted the mental health of young adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether returning to online classes, even not presential, during the social isolation of the COVID-19 pandemic, affected the mental health of university students.
Forty students (10 men and 30 women) (age, 22.3 ± 3.8 years; body mass, 62.5 ± 17.8 kg; height, 165.6 ± 8.7 cm) from undergraduate health courses participated in the study. The students answered a self-administered questionnaire designed to gather personal and quarantine information as well as information about the frequency of depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) symptoms. The questionnaire was answered before and after the return to online classes.
There was a significantly lower frequency of depression symptoms after the return to online classes (Z = −2.27; p = 0.02). However, there was no difference in anxiety symptoms before and after returning to online classes (Z = −0.51; p = 0.61).
Return to online classes positively impacted the mental health (decrease of frequency of depression symptoms) of university students. Future studies are needed to observe whether the changes observed after returning to school are maintained over time.
The prevalence of mental disorders (MD) is greater in children; however, they are the population with less help-seeking and access to mental health-care services (MHS).
To explore the characteristics of help-seeking and access to specialized MHS in children with MD.
A cross-sectional study was carried out from 2018 to 2019, in the Children’s Psychiatric Hospital and National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. Sample 397 children and 397 caregivers. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of both institutions. The patient’s family member was questioned on sociodemographic data and help-seeking to MHS. Sample’s descriptive statistics applying measures of central tendency, Inferential statistics with t-test for differences in means between groups (diagnosis), and one-way ANOVA to variables associated with the help-seeking to MHS.
Children´s sample: 37% female, average age 12 years (SD± 3.6), 51% had diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder (HD), 34% depressive disorder (DD). The children´s age at the time of seeking healthcare was different according to the diagnosis: DD 10.1 (SD ± 4.5) and HD 6.95 (SD ± 3.4), (T = -3.18, p = 0.000); and by sex: girls 10.9 (SD ± 4.5), boys 7.85 (SD ± 4.0); (T = -3.07, p = 0.000). The mother was the first person to notice the symptoms.
The search for MHS differs by sex, diagnosis and family history; it is necessary to design mental health interventions considering gender-based differences, namely, to integrate a gender perspective.
Goffman defined stigma as an “attribute that is deeply discrediting” and in the last two decades research on this subject grew substantially.Opioids were ranked as the second most common form of illicit drug used worldwide and there is consensus in the literature that opioid substitution therapy (OST), methadone or buprenorphine, are the most effective treatments, although remain underutilized. People with an history of substance use disorders (SUD) are widely stigmatized, a significant barrier to detection and treatment efforts. Care workers were cited as the second most common source of stigma.
The aim is to do a review of the literature of stigma as a significant barrier to OST and present several potential strategies to reduce stigma.
Non-systematic review of the literature with selection of scientific articles published in the last 5 years; by searching the Pubmed and Medscape databases using the combination of MeSH descriptors. The following MeSH terms were used: Opioid Use Disorder; Stigma; Opioid Substitution Therapy
OST providers should actively bring up the topic of stigma in clinic appointments to determine whether the patient is experiencing stigma, and if so, whether it is adversely affecting their ability to continue in the treatment. More active measures need to be taken to help reducing the stigma through public awareness campaigns at local levels, continuing education of health care providers regarding substance OST, and greater incorporation of family members into the program.
In conclusion, further research is required to understand and address this issue.
The mental health effects of Coronavirus2019(COVID-19) outbreak might be profound, including higher suicide rates.This phenomena is likely to become a more pressing concern as the pandemic spreads.While remarkable social distancing interventions have been implemented to reduce the rate of new infections,the potential for adverse outcomes on suicide risk is high, especially among vulnerable populations.
The aim is to do a review of the literature of suicide prevention during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Non-systematic review of the literature with selection of scientific articles published in the last 7 months; by searching the Pubmed databases, the following MeSH terms were used: Suicide prevention; COVID-19
In order to prevent suicide, urgent consideration must be extend beyond general mental health approaches. A wide-ranging interdisciplinary response that recognises how the pandemic might heighten risk is needed. The application of knowledge about effective suicide prevention is the key. Mental health services should develop clear remote assessment and care pathways, and staff training to support new ways of dealing with. Publications on mental health and psychological effects of COVID-19 outbreak provide important information and recommendations for all three levels of suicide prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary.
The challenge of the COVID-19 outbreak might bring with it an opportunity to advance the field of suicide prevention and, thus, to save lives, which also represent a public health priority. The mental health community, backed by active vigilance and international collaboration, should be prepared and can use this challenging period to advance suicide prevention.
Suicide is a phenomenon that is increasing in prevalence. Exposure to suicide by a loved one can be experienced as a traumatic event, capable of precipitating or aggravating preexisting psychiatric conditions. As much as we are clinically aware of gravity situation experienced by suicide survivors, there is a marked lack of studies on psychotherapeutic interventions in this population group.
The present work aims to review the literature on the psychodynamic treatment of suicide survivors, considering their theoretical and technical aspects.
Narrative review of psychiatric and psychoanalytic literature.
The initial reaction described on becoming aware of the suicide of someone close to you is of disbelief, shock and helplessness. This is followed by ambivalent feelings of hate and guilt, shame and hopelessness. Sometimes, a chronic depressive state expressed by the survivor’s guilt can emerge. The mourning work will initially encounter resistance to face the loss of the object, through mechanisms such as denial, repression and psychotic fantasies. The lost suicide has a traumatic impact, modifying relational patterns and it is commonly associated with important isolation. The survivor will be able to transfer via fear the death of the therapist and even fantasize that he will also kill himself.
Psychodynamic psychotherapy with suicide survivors finds theoretical and practical foundations in the literature, mainly through discussions of reports clinical and theoretical reviews on the topic. Through transfer and therapeutic alliance, new patterns of object relation can be sketched, in a context of mourning so often complicated by shutdown pressures and loneliness.
This study aimed to analyse the spatial–temporal distribution of COVID-19 mortality in Sergipe, Northeast, Brazil. It was an ecological study utilising spatiotemporal analysis techniques that included all deaths confirmed by COVID-19 in Sergipe, from 2 April to 14 June 2020. Mortality rates were calculated per 100 000 inhabitants and the temporal trends were analysed using a segmented log-linear model. For spatial analysis, the Kernel estimator was used and the crude mortality rates were smoothed by the empirical Bayesian method. The space–time prospective scan statistics applied the Poisson's probability distribution model. There were 391 COVID-19 registered deaths, with the majority among ⩾60 years old (62%) and males (53%). The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension (40%), diabetes (31%) and cardiovascular disease (15%). An increasing mortality trend across the state was observed, with a higher increase in the countryside. An active spatiotemporal cluster of mortality comprising the metropolitan area and neighbouring cities was identified. The trend of COVID-19 mortality in Sergipe was increasing and the spatial distribution of deaths was heterogeneous with progression towards the countryside. Therefore, the use of spatial analysis techniques may contribute to surveillance and control of COVID-19 pandemic.
This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of flint maize processing methods on the estimation of the readily soluble fraction (a), the potentially degradable fraction (b) and the rate of degradation of b (c) for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and starch in the rumen; and (2) verify whether two different applications of in situ technique can be used to estimate in vivo DM, OM and starch digestibilities. Five ruminally cannulated Nellore bulls (265 ± 18.2 kg; 8 ± 1.0 mo) were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Three experimental diets were composed of 0.30 whole-plant maize silage, 0.10 supplement and 0.60 of one of the following processing methods: dry ground maize grain (DMG); high-moisture maize (HMM); reconstituted maize grain silage (RMG). Two additional diets were composed of 0.10 supplement, 0.80 snaplage and 0.10 stalklage (SNAP-80); or 0.10 supplement and 0.90 snaplage (SNAP-90). Digestibilities were estimated using in vivo procedure or predicted from in situ technique using a single 24 h incubation point or an equation proposed in previous literature. Diets based on ensiled grains presented greater (P < 0.05) fraction a and c and lower (P < 0.05) fraction b of DM, OM and starch compared to DMG. Both alternative use of in situ technique accurately estimated (P > 0.05) in vivo DM, OM and starch digestibilities. The results suggest that ensilage process may increase the availability of nutrients. The two different applications of in situ technique showed precision and accuracy to estimate in vivo digestibility.
Background: Based on data obtained from hospitals in the city of Belo Horizonte (population ~3,000,000), we evaluated relevant factors such as death, age, duration of surgery, potential for contamination and surgical site infection, plastic surgery, and craniotomy. The possibility of predicting surgical site infection (SSI) was then analyzed using pattern recognition algorithms based on MLP (multilayer perceptron). Methods: Data were collected by the hospital infection control committees (CCIHs) in hospitals in Belo Horizonte between 2016 and 2018. The noisy records were filtered, and the occurrences were analyzed. Finally, the predictive power of SSI of 5 types MLP was evaluated experimentally: momentum, backpropagation standard, weight decay, resilient propagation, and quick propagation. The model used 3, 5, 7, and 10 neurons in the occult layer and with resamples varied the number of records for testing (65% and 75%) and for validation (35% and 25%). Comparisons were made by measuring the AUC (area under the curve (range, 0–1). Results: From 1,096 records of craniotomy, 289 were usable for analysis. Moreover, 16% died; averaged age was 56 years (range, 40–65); mean time of surgery was 186 minutes (range, 95–250 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (90.6%) to 8 (0.3%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 2.7% contaminated, 23.5% potentially contaminated, 72.3% clean. The SSI rate reached 4%. The prediction process in AUCs ranged from 0.7 to 0.994. In plastic surgery, from 3,693 records, 1,099 were intact, with only 1 case of SSI and no deaths. The average age for plastic surgery was 41 years (range, 16–91); the average time of surgery was 218.5 minutes (range, 19–580 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (77.4%) to 6 times (0.001%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 27.90% potential contamination, 1.67% contaminated, and 0.84% infected. The prediction process ranged in AUCs from 0.2 to 0.4. Conclusions: We identified a high noise index in both surgeries due to subjectivity at the time of data collection. The profiles of each surgery in the statistical analyses were different, which was reflected in the analyzed structures. The MLP for craniotomy surgery demonstrated relevant predictive power and can guide intelligent monitoring software (available in www.sacihweb.com). However, for plastic surgeries, MLPs need more SSI samples to optimize outcomes. To optimize data collection and to enable other hospitals to use the SSI prediction tool, a mobile application was developed.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in the baseline of the Longitudinal Study on the Lifestyle and Health of University Students (n 685) carried out in a public Brazilian university. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Dietary patterns (DP) for breakfast, lunch and dinner were identified using principal component analysis. Generalised linear models were used to analyse the variables associated with each DP. Three DP were extracted for each meal: breakfast: ‘White bread and butter/margarine’, ‘Coffee and tea’ and ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’; lunch: ‘Traditional’, ‘Western’ and ‘Vegetarian’ and dinner: ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’, ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’. Students who had meals at the campus showed greater adherence to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 1·15, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·19) and ‘Coffee and tea’ (exp (βadj) = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·10) breakfast patterns; ‘Western’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·08) and to the ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’ dinner pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·10, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14). Having meals at the campus was associated with lower adherence to the ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’ breakfast pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·89, 0·97), ‘Traditional’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) dinner pattern. The food environment at campus may influence students’ DP. Recognising meal eating patterns is important to support healthy eating promotion strategies on campus. Adjustments in the University Canteen menu could contribute to healthier eating choices among students.
This study aimed to analyse the trend and spatial–temporal clusters of risk of transmission of COVID-19 in northeastern Brazil. We conducted an ecological study using spatial and temporal trend analysis. All confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the Northeast region of Brazil were included, from 7 March to 22 May 2020. We used the segmented log-linear regression model to assess time trends, and the local empirical Bayesian estimator, the global and local Moran indexes for spatial analysis. The prospective space–time scan statistic was performed using the Poisson probability distribution model. There were 113 951 confirmed cases of COVID-19. The average incidence rate was 199.73 cases/100 000 inhabitants. We observed an increasing trend in the incidence rate in all states. Spatial autocorrelation was reported in metropolitan areas, and 178 municipalities were considered a priority, especially in the states of Ceará and Maranhão. We identified 11 spatiotemporal clusters of COVID-19 cases; the primary cluster included 70 municipalities from Ceará state. COVID-19 epidemic is increasing rapidly throughout the Northeast region of Brazil, with dispersion towards countryside. It was identified high risk clusters for COVID-19, especially in the coastal side.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
The relative contribution of imported vs. locally acquired infections to urban malaria burden remains largely unexplored in Latin America, the most urbanised region in the developing world. Here we use a simple molecular epidemiology framework to examine the transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax in Mâncio Lima, the Amazonian municipality with the highest malaria incidence rate in Brazil. We prospectively genotyped 177 P. vivax infections diagnosed in urban residents between June 2014 and July 2015 and showed that local parasites are structured into several lineages of closely related microsatellite haplotypes, with the largest genetic cluster comprising 32% of all infections. These findings are very unlikely under the hypothesis of multiple independent imports of parasite strains from the rural surroundings. Instead, the presence of an endemic near-clonal parasite lineage circulating over 13 consecutive months is consistent with a local P. vivax transmission chain in the town, with major implications for malaria elimination efforts in this and similar urban environments across the Amazon.
Progesterone (P4) plays a key role in pregnancy establishment and maintenance; during early pregnancy, P4 stimulates the production and release of uterine secretions necessary for conceptus growth prior to implantation; therefore, exogenous P4 supplementation may improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effects of supplementation during early pregnancy with long-acting injectable progesterone or altrenogest on embryonic characteristics of sows and gilts. Thus, a total of 32 sows and 16 gilts were used. On day 6 of pregnancy sows and gilts were allocated to one of the following groups: non-supplemented; supplemented with 20 mg of altrenogest, orally, from days 6 to 12 of pregnancy; supplemented with 2.15 mg/kg of long-acting injectable progesterone on day 6 of pregnancy. Animals were killed on day 28 of pregnancy, and ovulation rate, embryo survival, embryo weight, crown-to-rump length, uterine glandular epithelium and endometrial vascularization were assessed. Treatments had no effect on pregnancy rate, embryo survival or endometrial vascular density (P > 0.05). Non-supplemented gilts presented larger and heavier embryos compared to gilts from supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Sows in the altrenogest group presented larger and heavier embryos compared to non-supplemented sows and sows supplemented with long-acting injectable progesterone. In conclusion, supplementation of sows and gilts with progestagen from day 6 of pregnancy can be used as a means to improve embryo survival without deleterious effects.
A new species of the genus Lyperosomum Looss, 1899, from the intestine of the golden-fronted woodpecker (Melanerpes aurifrons) from northern Mexico is described. Lyperosomum cuauhxinqui sp. n. is morphologically distinguished from other congeneric species from the Americas by a higher oral/ventral sucker ratio and its body length and width. The sequences of domains D1–D3 of the large subunit (LSU) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) from the mitochondrial DNA of the new species were obtained and compared with available sequences from GenBank. The genetic divergence estimated between the new species and other congeneric species ranged from 2 to 6% and 13.4 to 17.3% for LSU and cox 1, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the two (LSU and cox 1) molecular markers consistently showed that L. cuauhxinqui sp. n. was nested within the genus Lyperosomum, with strong bootstrap support (100%) and Bayesian posterior probabilities (1.0). In particular, the LSU tree indicated that the sequence of the new species is closely related to sequences from Zonorchis alveyi, Zonorchis delectans and Zonorchis sp. from Central America, suggesting that these sequences should be transferred to the genus Lyperosomum. The new species represents the first record from Mexico and the fifth species identified in the Americas. Our study also revealed that the taxonomy of the genus Lyperosomum should be re-examined by combining molecular, morphological and ecological characteristics.