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Mexico has a wealth of plant genetic resources, including Capsicum species. In southern Mexico, specifically in the western part of the Yucatan Peninsula, Maya farmers have preserved a great diversity of chilli pepper landraces of C. annuum, C. frutescens and C. chinense. However, the morphological diversity, capsaicinoid content, conservation status and potential use of these species have not been studied. To fill this gap and generate information to support the conservation and use of these species, we characterized the phenotypic diversity and capsaicinoid content for nine chilli pepper landraces from the western Yucatan Peninsula by assessing 15 quantitative and 39 qualitative traits for 10 plants of each landrace. For quantitative variables, two groups of chilli pepper landraces were obtained by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Group I was formed by Rosita, Bobo, Dulce, Xcat'ik1, Xcat'ik2 and Verde landraces; Group II included the Maax, Bolita and Pico Paloma landraces. For qualitative variables, three groups of chilli pepper landraces were obtained; Group I included Dulce, Bobo, Xcat'ik1, Xcat'ik2 and Verde landraces, Group II only included the Rosita landrace, and Group III included Maax, Bolita and Pico Paloma landraces. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) quantification of capsaicinoids indicated higher values in landraces Rosita (14,062.3 μg/g D.W), Bolita (5928.1 μg/g D.W), Maax (3438.4 μg/g D.W) and Pico Paloma (3138.9 μg/g D.W). The Yucatan chilli pepper landraces provide valuable diverse germplasm for morphological characteristics and capsaicinoid content that can be used in breeding and conservation programmes.
A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
TiO2-(B)/SnO2 nanostructured composites have been prepared by the combination of an oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion reaction method (MRM) and a hydrothermal method. Its electrochemical properties were investigated as anode materials in lithium-ion battery, and characterization was carried out by XRD, BET, Raman, FE-SEM, EDXS, and TEM. The as-prepared composites consisted of monoclinic phase TiO2-(B) nanoribbons decorated with cassiterite structure SnO2 nanoparticles. The electrochemical performance of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite electrode showed higher reversible capacity of 265 mAh/g than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, 79 mAh/g, after 50 cycles at 0.1 C in a voltage range of 0.01-3.0 V at room temperature. In addition, the coulombic efficiency of the TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite remains at an average greater than 90% from the 2nd to the 50th cycles. The TiO2-(B)/SnO2 50/50 nanocomposite presented the best balance between the mechanical support effect provided by TiO2-(B) that also contributes to the LIB capacity and the SnO2 that provides high specific capacity.
Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
Fifty-six schizophrenic patients at the moment of their suicidal attempt were compared to a control group of 60 patients. Schizophrenic suicidal attempters showed an identifiable clinical profile at the acute phase. Two main groups could be differentiated in regard to their reasons (depressive or psychotic) for attempting suicide.
It is necessary to explore the possibilities of brief intervention of smoking cessation in bipolar disorder (BD) that may act on the level of motivation for change.
Assess the effectiveness of the 3 A's intervention (Ask, Advise and Assess) in a sample of euthymic BD patients.
260 patients diagnosed with BD that were in the euthymic phase and attended the Community care centers of Spain that have been evaluated for their history of smoking habits and current use.
Patients who consumed in the last month qualified for the level of motivation for change (measured by URICA scale); before and after conducting a brief intervention of no more than 30 minutes in total, divided in three contacts during a month, two face to face and one phone contact.
The 49% of the evaluated patients showed an actual use of cigarettes with an average of 28.73 (SD 11.82) years of consumption, with a mean consumption of 21.00 (SD 10.40) cigarettes per day and a level of nicotine dependency of 5.72 (SD 3.03). The 67% of patients were in the Contemplation stage of change, after the intervention 18% progressed to the stage of motivation and 14% ended up in the Stage of Ready for Change. In the third appointment the 21.4% of the smokers reported a reduction of the consumption.
The results seem to confirm its effectiveness, although it should be considered the possibility of carrying out specific tools of brief intervention for this sort of patients.
Life functioning difficulties are a relevant but undervalued consequence of major depression. Mood symptoms and cognitive deficits have a significant, and somehow independent, impact on them. Therefore, cognitive difficulties should be considered a potential target to improve patients’ functioning.
To examine the degree in which objective and subjective cognition explain functional outcome.
To assess objective cognitive function (CF) with a neuropsychological battery and to measure subjective CF using measures of cognitive perception.
Ninety-nine patients with depression were assessed by age, sex and level of schooling. Depressive symptoms severity was measured by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). Objective CF consisted in the following cognitive domains: memory, attention, executive functioning and processing speed. Subjective CF was assessed with Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-Depression (PDQ-D). Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) was used to evaluate life functioning, excluding the cognitive domain. All the listed measures were included in a multiple regression analysis with FAST scores as dependent variable.
The regression model was significant (F1,98 = 67.484, P < 0.001) with an R of 0.825. The variables showing statistical power included (from higher to lower β-coefficient) HDRS-17 (β = 0.545, t = 8.453, P < 0.001), PDQ-D (β = 0.383, t = 6.047, P < 0.001) and DSST (β = −0.123, t = −1.998, P = 0.049).
The severity of depressive symptoms is the variable that best explains life functioning. Surprisingly, the second factor hindering it is the patients’ perception of their cognition. Current findings highlight the importance of correcting cognitive bias in order to improve functionality. However, results have to be taken cautiously as mood symptoms could partly explain the bias.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This is a case report of a 63-year-old patient with no previous attentions in mental health. He is referred by his general practitioner because he presents wounds all over his body. He reports that there is a plague of bugs at his place that bite him everywhere. Therefore, he scratches continuously, trying to remove the stingers, and injuring himself all over. The family ensures there are no bugs at all, but the patient threatens to set fire to the house in order to extinguish the plague or even kill himself. An OCD with cleaning compulsive behavior was also present since many years, as well as an alcohol abuse. The patient required hospitalization in the psychiatry service. Organic cause for the disorder was discarded. Long-acting injectable aripiprazol was introduced and the patient stopped drinking. Progressively, the delusional symptoms began to subside. Now he maintains no awareness of illness but he says the bugs are disappearing and, at least, they do not bite him anymore.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Psychosis spectrum disorder has a complex pathoetiology characterised by interacting environmental and genetic vulnerabilities. The present study aims to investigate the role of gene–environment interaction using aggregate scores of genetic (polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ)) and environment liability for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia (ES-SCZ)) across the psychosis continuum.
The sample consisted of 1699 patients, 1753 unaffected siblings, and 1542 healthy comparison participants. The Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R) was administered to analyse scores of total, positive, and negative schizotypy in siblings and healthy comparison participants. The PRS-SCZ was trained using the Psychiatric Genomics Consortiums results and the ES-SCZ was calculated guided by the approach validated in a previous report in the current data set. Regression models were applied to test the independent and joint effects of PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ (adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry using 10 principal components).
Both genetic and environmental vulnerability were associated with case-control status. Furthermore, there was evidence for additive interaction between binary modes of PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ (above 75% of the control distribution) increasing the odds for schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (relative excess risk due to interaction = 6.79, [95% confidential interval (CI) 3.32, 10.26], p < 0.001). Sensitivity analyses using continuous PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ confirmed gene–environment interaction (relative excess risk due to interaction = 1.80 [95% CI 1.01, 3.32], p = 0.004). In siblings and healthy comparison participants, PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ were associated with all SIS-R dimensions and evidence was found for an interaction between PRS-SCZ and ES-SCZ on the total (B = 0.006 [95% CI 0.003, 0.009], p < 0.001), positive (B = 0.006 [95% CI, 0.002, 0.009], p = 0.002), and negative (B = 0.006, [95% CI 0.004, 0.009], p < 0.001) schizotypy dimensions.
The interplay between exposome load and schizophrenia genetic liability contributing to psychosis across the spectrum of expression provide further empirical support to the notion of aetiological continuity underlying an extended psychosis phenotype.
We report the synthesis of metal-free nitrogen-doped electrocatalysts obtained from graphite and urea as carbon and nitrogen precursor, respectively. High-energy milling and thermal annealing were carried out to obtain low cost electrocatalysts. Additionally, this method has shorter synthesis times, is environmentally friendly and use high-availability raw materials. A short-route synthesis consisted in the partial exfoliation of graphite by mechanical milling with urea. Afterwards, nitrogen was integrated into the exfoliated graphite lattice by thermal annealing at 500°C. XPS analyses shows up to 1.7 at. % was incorporated to the graphitic lattice. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy were used to analyse the morphology and structural features. The catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in basic media was evaluated by the rotating disk electrode technique.
Haemonchus contortus is a haematophagous gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) that causes severe anaemia and even death in small ruminants, negatively impacting the economic viability of farms. Traditionally, this parasite has been controlled with chemical compounds; however, inadequate use of these types of products has favoured the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to search for alternatives for GIN control. Previous studies have reported the anthelmintic activity of edible mushroom extracts against H. contortus. A recent study reported that a fraction constituted of different fatty acids and β-sitosterol isolated from the basidiomata of the edible mushroom Pleurotus djamor ECS-123 has ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. Thus, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of the pure molecules: pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, β-sitosterol, stearic acid and linoleic acid. For this purpose, an egg-hatching inhibition test was carried out in which the compounds were evaluated individually and in combination at a final concentration of 20 mg mL−1. Furthermore, larval mortality was assessed using a combination of the five commercial compounds previously mentioned at different concentrations (1.25–20 mg mL−1). Palmitic acid and stearic acid, in some combinations, inhibited H. contortus egg hatching by 100%. On the other hand, in the larval mortality test, the combination of the five compounds showed dose-dependent behaviour, and 100% mortality was obtained 24 h post-incubation. Pure molecules and their combinations have anthelmintic-like activity against the eggs and larvae of H. contortus.
The main goal of this work was to evaluate the in vitro biological activity of two ferrocenyl chalcones (FcC-1 and FcC-2) against Haemonchus contortus (third-stage larvae (L3)) and Nacobbus aberrans (second-stage juveniles (J2)). Both compounds were synthesized and characterized by usual spectroscopic methods and their molecular structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Nematode strains were examined in terms of percentage mortality of H. contortus (L3) by the action of FcC-1, which showed an effectivity of 100% at a concentration of 342 μM in 24 h, with EC50 = 20.33 μM and EC90 = 162.76 μM, whereas FcC-2 had an effectivity of 72% at a concentration of 342 μM in 24 h, with EC50 = 167.39 μM and EC90 = 316.21 μM. The effect of FcC-1 against nematode phytoparasite N. aberrans showed a better percentage of 95% at a concentration of 342 μM, with EC50 = 7.18 μM and EC90 = 79.25 μM, whereas the effect of FcC-2 was 87% at 342 μM, with EC50 = 168 μM and EC90 = 319.56 μM at 36 h. After treatment, the scanning electron micrographs revealed deformities in the dorsal flank and posterior part close to the tail of H. contortus L3. They showed moderate in vitro nematicidal activity against H. contortus L3 and N. aberrans J2.
To provide cross-national data for selected countries of the Americas on service utilization for psychiatric and substance use disorders, the distribution of these services among treatment sectors, treatment adequacy and factors associated with mental health treatment and adequacy of treatment.
Data come from data collected from 6710 adults with 12 month mental disorder surveys across seven surveys in six countries in North (USA), Central (Mexico) and South (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru) America who were interviewed 2001–2015 as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV diagnoses were made with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Interviews also assessed service utilization by the treatment sector, adequacy of treatment received and socio-demographic correlates of treatment.
Little over one in four of respondents with any 12 month DSM-IV/CIDI disorder received any treatment. Although the vast majority (87.1%) of this treatment was minimally adequate, only 35.3% of cases received treatment that met acceptable quality guidelines. Indicators of social-advantage (high education and income) were associated with higher rates of service use and adequacy, but a number of other correlates varied across survey sites.
These results shed light on an enormous public health problem involving under-treatment of common mental disorders, although the problem is most extreme among people with social disadvantage. Promoting services that are more accessible, especially for those with few resources, is urgently needed.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
Gluten is only partially digested by intestinal enzymes and can generate peptides that can alter intestinal permeability, facilitating bacterial translocation, thus affecting the immune system. Few studies addressed the role of diet with gluten in the development of colitis. Therefore, we investigate the effects of wheat gluten-containing diet on the evolution of sodium dextran sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice were fed a standard diet without (colitis group) or with 4·5 % wheat gluten (colitis + gluten) for 15 d and received DSS solution (1·5 %, w/v) instead of water during the last 7 d. Compared with the colitis group, colitis + gluten mice presented a worse clinical score, a larger extension of colonic injury area, and increased mucosal inflammation. Both intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation were increased, propitiating bacteria migration for peripheral organs. The mechanism by which diet with gluten exacerbates colitis appears to be related to changes in protein production and organisation in adhesion junctions and desmosomes. The protein α-E-catenin was especially reduced in mice fed gluten, which compromised the localisation of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, weakening the structure of desmosomes. The epithelial damage caused by gluten included shortening of microvilli, a high number of digestive vacuoles, and changes in the endosome/lysosome system. In conclusion, our results show that wheat gluten-containing diet exacerbates the mucosal damage caused by colitis, reducing intestinal barrier function and increasing bacterial translocation. These effects are related to the induction of weakness and disorganisation of adhesion junctions and desmosomes as well as shortening of microvilli and modification of the endocytic vesicle route.