To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Multicentre research databases can provide insights into healthcare processes to improve outcomes and make practice recommendations for novel approaches. Effective audits can establish a framework for reporting research efforts, ensuring accurate reporting, and spearheading quality improvement. Although a variety of data auditing models and standards exist, barriers to effective auditing including costs, regulatory requirements, travel, and design complexity must be considered.
Materials and methods:
The Congenital Cardiac Research Collaborative conducted a virtual data training initiative and remote source data verification audit on a retrospective multicentre dataset. CCRC investigators across nine institutions were trained to extract and enter data into a robust dataset on patients with tetralogy of Fallot who required neonatal intervention. Centres provided de-identified source files for a randomised 10% patient sample audit. Key auditing variables, discrepancy types, and severity levels were analysed across two study groups, primary repair and staged repair.
Of the total 572 study patients, data from 58 patients (31 staged repairs and 27 primary repairs) were source data verified. Amongst the 1790 variables audited, 45 discrepancies were discovered, resulting in an overall accuracy rate of 97.5%. High accuracy rates were consistent across all CCRC institutions ranging from 94.6% to 99.4% and were reported for both minor (1.5%) and major discrepancies type classifications (1.1%).
Findings indicate that implementing a virtual multicentre training initiative and remote source data verification audit can identify data quality concerns and produce a reliable, high-quality dataset. Remote auditing capacity is especially important during the current COVID-19 pandemic.
We summarize a series of numerical experiments of collisional dynamics in dense stellar systems such as globular clusters (GCs) and in weakly collisional plasmas using a novel simulation technique, the so-calledMulti-particle collision (MPC) method, alternative to Fokker-Planck and Monte Carlo approaches. MPC is related to particle-mesh approaches for the computation of self consistent long-range fields, ensuring that simulation time scales with N log N in the number of particles, as opposed to N2 for direct N-body. The collisional relaxation effects are modelled by computing particle interactions based on a collision operator approach that ensures rigorous conservation of energy and momenta and depends only on particles velocities and cell-based integrated quantities.
Because of the heterogeneity of schizophrenia, this study researched different cognitive patterns in distinct subtypes of schizophrenic patients.
Thirty-five Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM IV) schizophrenic patients and 35 healthy controls were included. Patients were categorized into deficit, disorganized and positive subtypes with the schedule for the deficit syndrome (SDS) and the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Executive/attentional functions were assessed with the modified card sorting test (MCST), a test of verbal fluency, the trail making test (TMT) and the Stroop color-word test (Stroop test). Episodic memory was explored through the California verbal learning test (CVLT).
The positive subtype had some executive/attentional (fluency and Stroop tests) and mnesic performances in the normal range, suggesting the preservation of good cognitive skills. In contrast, the deficit and disorganized subtypes had major mnesic and executive/attentional dysfunctions compared to healthy subjects. The deficit subtype compared to the control group performed predominantly worse on the MCST and fluency, whereas the disorganized subtype had the lowest scores on the TMT and the Stroop test.
This study showed distinct cognitive patterns in deficit, disorganized and positive patients in comparison with the controls, suggesting a heterogeneous cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.
Les approches centrées sur l’autorégulation ainsi que sur l’acceptation des émotions et des sensations désagréables inspirées des programme MBSR et MBCT, représentent une voie intéressante dans la prise en charge des troubles du comportement alimentaire dans lesquels le contrôle et l’évitement sont au premier plan. Ces programmes permettent de travailler les aspects obsessionnels (comme les ruminations) et compulsifs (sur l’alimentation, la réactivité avec perte de contrôle) associés à ces troubles alimentaires. La clinique des maladies mentales et de l’encéphale (CMME), hôpital Sainte-Anne a mis en place un protocole « MBCT Boulimie » en huit séances. Le programme MBCT a été modifié, notamment au niveau des outils cognitifs et de la durée des pratiques de méditation pour des patients présentant un TCA. La recherche s’est réalisée sur vingt-quatre sujets de l’hôpital de jour de la CMME et avait pour objet d’évaluer l’impact du programme MBCT dans une population de sujets souffrant de boulimie et de Binge Eating Disorder.
BMI, EDI-2, EAT, BDI-13, BITE, STAI Ya/Yb, le Ruminative Response Scale for Eating Disorder (RRSED), l’Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), le Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), le Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), le Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS), le Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), l’Impulsive Behavior Scale : Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, and Sensation Seeking (UPPS), le Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thinking Scale (CERTS) et le Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Nous présenterons les résultats préliminaires de cette recherche ainsi que le projet de suite de ce travail de recherche clinique.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social interaction and behavioral impairments. Several studies have reported differences in white matter generalized Fractional Anisotropy (gFA) in ASD.
We studied white matter microstructural integrity in individuals with ASD.
We conducted the first DWI-based whole brain tractography study to compare gFA in 22 deep white matter tracts in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD to controls and individuals with ASD. Futhermore, we replicated our significants results in an independant sample.
Fifty-one first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD, 29 controls and 14 individuals with ASD participated.
We performed q-ball imaging whole-brain tractography based on 1.5 T diffusion weighted MRI over 32 non-colinear directions. Then, we computed mean gFA along 22 main deep white matter tracts. A linear mixed model using group, gender, age and IQ as fixed effects and family as a random effect was used and Bonferroni correction applied. We also recruited a replication sample comprising 23 individuals with ASD and 32 controls.
We demonstrated a significantly reduced mean gFA along the left IFOF in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD and individuals with ASD compared with controls and replicated this finding in an independant sample of patients. A decrease in mean gFA was also observed in the left CST when we compared first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD to controls (no such decrease was present in patients).
Our work suggests that structural fronto-occipital disconnectivity may be an endophenotype of ASD.
This chapter addresses a special category of cases in which an asserted patent is, or has been declared to be, essential to the implementation of a collaboratively developed voluntary consensus standard, and the holder of that patent has agreed to license it to implementers of the standard on terms that are fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory (FRAND).This chapter explores how the existence of such a FRAND commitment may affect a patent holder’s entitlement to monetary damages and injunctive relief. In addition to issues of patent law, remedies law, and contracts law, we consider the effect of competition law on this issue.
The reaction of a Wyoming-type bentonite with pH 13.5 solutions was investigated experimentally at 35 and 60°C for periods of 1 to 730 days. Some crystal properties of the starting montmorillonitic clay remain unchanged, i.e. stability of the octahedral sheet, total cation exchange capacity (CEC) and CEC after neutralization of the octahedral charge, full expandability in the Casaturated state, and size distribution. Other properties are changed, e.g. there is an increase in the expandability after octahedral charge neutralization; a slight increase in the average layer charge; a decrease of the total surface area; and a particle morphological change from flakes to hexagonal shape.
The composition and the structure of the smectite layers did not change significantly during the reaction. The increasing number of expandable layers after octahedral charge neutralization is attributed to modifications in the stacking sequence. The number of interlayers surrounded by two charged tetrahedral sheets increases with reaction time.
In order to assess the influence of tetrahedral sheet charge on the hydroxyl-stretching vibration in clay minerals, a series of synthetic Na-saponites, with increasing layer charge, was studied by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. When recorded after KBr dilution either in transmission or diffuse reflectance, the IR spectra exhibit a component at ~3710 cm-1, the intensity of which increases linearly with increasing layer charge. When experiments are carried out without any dilution of the samples, this component is not observed, suggesting a Na+/K+ exchange upon mixing of the sample with KBr. The spectra obtained for K-saponite confirm this exchange. This shows that the dilution procedure can lead to serious misinterpretations of IR spectra in the OH-stretching region.
Recent spectropolarimetric surveys of bright, hot stars have found that ~10% of OB-type stars contain strong (mostly dipolar) surface magnetic fields (~kG). The prominent paradigm describing the interaction between the stellar winds and the surface magnetic field is the magnetically confined wind shock (MCWS) model. In this model, the stellar wind plasma is forced to move along the closed field loops of the magnetic field, colliding at the magnetic equator, and creating a shock. As the shocked material cools radiatively it will emit X-rays. Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy is a key tool in detecting and characterizing the hot wind material confined by the magnetic fields of these stars. Some B-type stars are found to have very short rotational periods. The effects of the rapid rotation on the X-ray production within the magnetosphere have yet to be explored in detail. The added centrifugal force due to rapid rotation is predicted to cause faster wind outflows along the field lines, leading to higher shock temperatures and harder X-rays. However, this is not observed in all rapidly rotating magnetic B-type stars. In order to address this from a theoretical point of view, we use the X-ray Analytical Dynamical Magnetosphere (XADM) model, originally developed for slow rotators, with an implementation of new rapid rotational physics. Using X-ray spectroscopy from ESA’s XMM-Newton space telescope, we observed 5 rapidly rotating B-types stars to add to the previous list of observations. Comparing the observed X-ray luminosity and hardness ratio to that predicted by the XADM allows us to determine the role the added centrifugal force plays in the magnetospheric X-ray emission of these stars.
The classical problem of foam film rupture dynamics has been investigated when the film interfaces exhibit very high rigidity due to the presence of specific surfactants. Two new features are reported. First, a strong deviation from the well-known Taylor–Culick law is observed. Second, crack-like patterns can be visualized in the film; these patterns are shown to appear at a well-defined film shrinkage. The key role of surface-active material on these features is quantitatively investigated, pointing to the importance of surface elasticity to describe these fast dynamical processes and thus providing an alternative tool to characterize surface elasticity in conditions extremely far from equilibrium. The origin of the cracks and their consequences on film rupturing dynamics are also discussed.
T1 topological rearrangement, i.e. switching of neighbouring bubbles in a liquid foam, is the elementary process of foam dynamics, and it involves film disappearance and generation. It has been studied extensively as it is crucial in foam rheology or foam collapse. T1 dynamics depends mainly on the surfactants used to generate the foam, and several models taking into account surface viscosity and/or elasticity have been proposed. By performing experiments in a cubic assembly of films, we go a step forward in this global analysis and investigate experimentally the mechanism of formation of the new film. In particular, the flow velocity field is probed by particle tracking and the film thickness is measured by light absorption and interferometric measurements. Two limit behaviours for the film are reported: it may (i) undergo an homogeneous extension, or (ii) resist elongation and remain at rest, new film being created from liquid exchange with connecting meniscus. Both T1 dynamics and film thickness are shown to depend on the competition between these two behaviours. Interestingly, their balance is set by the surfactant solution used, but it is also shown to vary during a single T1 relaxation process.
The bacterium Francisella tularensis causes the vector-borne zoonotic disease tularemia, and may infect a wide range of hosts including invertebrates, mammals and birds. Transmission to humans occurs through contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, or through arthropod vectors. Tularemia has a broad geographical distribution, and there is evidence which suggests local emergence or re-emergence of this disease in Europe. This review was developed to provide an update on the geographical distribution of F. tularensis in humans, wildlife, domestic animals and vector species, to identify potential public health hazards, and to characterize the epidemiology of tularemia in Europe. Information was collated on cases in humans, domestic animals and wildlife, and on reports of detection of the bacterium in arthropod vectors, from 38 European countries for the period 1992–2012. Multiple international databases on human and animal health were consulted, as well as published reports in the literature. Tularemia is a disease of complex epidemiology that is challenging to understand and therefore to control. Many aspects of this disease remain poorly understood. Better understanding is needed of the epidemiological role of animal hosts, potential vectors, mechanisms of maintenance in the different ecosystems, and routes of transmission of the disease.
We surveyed 399 US acute care hospitals regarding availability of on-site Legionella testing; 300 (75.2%) did not offer Legionella testing on site. Availability varied according to hospital size and geographic location. On-site access to testing may improve detection of Legionnaires disease and inform patient management and prevention efforts.
In this article, we reflect on the motives underlying the search for extraterrestrial intelligent life (SETI) with a view to show that far from turning away from humanity it is profoundly rooted in human aspirations. We suggest that those motives derive their driving force from the fact that they combine two powerful aspirations of humanity. On the one hand, there is the transcendental motive that drives history of science, the human enterprise that claims to escape any communitarian closure of horizon and brings our humanity to transcend itself toward the other, which was formerly referred to under the title Universal Reason. On the other hand, there is the anthropological motive by virtue of which the human being tends to project on the other and even in inanimate nature a double of himself. The mixture of both motives is deemed responsible for a remarkable bias in the current understanding of the SETI programme. Despite the fact that such a programme might well be aimed at any biological formation which could be arbitrarily different from all known forms, it is focused instead on a very special kind of being: beings that possess both the natural property of the type of mentality we identify with: intelligence, and the ideal one of being possible co-subjects for a Science of Nature.
The AMANDE facility produces mono-energetic neutron fields from 2 keV to 20 MeV with a metrological quality (Gressier et al. 2004). To be considered as a standard facility, fluence and energy distributions of neutron fields have to be mastered, i.e. measured by primary detector standards. For this purpose, a new gaseous Time Projection Chamber (μTPC) is being developed within the MIMAC project devoted to directional Dark Matter search (Billard et al. 2010). The μTPC is dedicated to measure neutron fields from 2 keV up to 1 MeV. The measurement strategy requires track reconstruction of recoiling nuclei down to a few keV, which can be achieved with low pressure gaseous detectors. Hence the energy must be measured precisely and the track of the recoiling nucleus must be 3D reconstructed. This is achieved with a low pressure micropattern gaseous detector (a pixelized bulk micromegas) equipped with a self triggered electronics able to perform the anode sampling at a 50 MHz frequency. Methods to measure fluence and neutron energy with the TPC have been described.
Non-Volatile Memories (NVM) integrating silicon nanodots (noted SDs) are considered as an emerging solution to extend Flash memories downscaling. In this alternative memory technology, silicon nanocrystals act as discrete traps for injected charges.
Si-dots were grown by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) on top of tunnel oxide. Depending on the pre-growth surface treatment, tunnel oxide surface may present either siloxane or silanol groups. SDs deposition relies on a 2–steps process: nucleation by SiH4 and selective growth with SiH2Cl2.
In a context of technological industrialization, it is of primary importance to develop in-line metrology tools dedicated to Si-dots growth process control. Hence, silicon-dots were observed in top view by using an in-line Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscopy CDSEM and their average size and density were extracted from image processing. In addition, Haze measurement, generally used for bare silicon surface characterization, was customized to quantify Si-dots deposition uniformity over the wafer. Finally, Haze value was correlated to Si nanodots density and size determined by CDSEM.
Magnetic fields of cool stars can be directly investigated through the study of the Zeeman effect on photospheric spectral lines using several approaches. With spectroscopic measurement in unpolarised light, the total magnetic flux averaged over the stellar disc can be derived but very little information on the field geometry is available. Spectropolarimetry provides a complementary information on the large-scale magnetic topology. With Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (ZDI), this information can be retrieved to produce a map of the vector magnetic field at the surface of the star, and in particular to assess the relative importance of the poloidal and toroidal components as well as the degree of axisymmetry of the field distribution.
The development of high-performance spectropolarimeters associated with multi-lines techniques and ZDI allows us to explore magnetic topologies throughout the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram, on stars spanning a wide range of mass, age and rotation period. These observations bring novel constraints on magnetic field generation by dynamo effect in cool stars. In particular, the study of solar twins brings new insight on the impact of rotation on the solar dynamo, whereas the detection of strong and stable dipolar magnetic fields on fully convective stars questions the precise role of the tachocline in this process.
The B0.2 V magnetic star τ Sco stands out from the larger population of massive magnetic OB stars due to its remarkable, superionized wind, apparently related to its peculiar magnetic field – a field which is far more complex than the mostly-dipolar fields usually observed in magnetic OB stars. τ Sco is therefore a puzzling outlier in the larger picture of stellar magnetism – a star that still defies interpretation in terms of a physically coherent model.
Recently, two early B-type stars were discovered as τ Sco analogues, identified by the striking similarity of their UV spectra to that of τ Sco, which was – until now – unique among OB stars. We present the recent detection of their magnetic fields by the MiMeS collaboration, reinforcing the connection between the presence of a magnetic field and a superionized wind. We will also present ongoing observational efforts undertaken to establish the precise magnetic topology, in order to provide additional constrains for existing models attempting to reproduce the unique wind structure of τ Sco-like stars.
I will review our recent analysis of the magnetic properties of the O9IV star HD 57682, using spectropolarimetric observations obtained with ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope within the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Large Program. I discuss our most recent determination of the rotational period from longitudinal magnetic field measurements and Hα variability - the latter obtained from over a decade's worth of professional and amateur spectroscopic observations. Lastly, I will report on our investigation of the magnetic field geometry and the effects of the field on the circumstellar environment.