A method allowing for the stable growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the surface of a fibrous metal mesh substrate (SUS304) was developed with the assistance of the microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. The controlled addition of up to ∼13% of O2 to the CH4 plasma reacting gas flow was found to promote the growth of the CNTs by oxidizing the amorphous carbon and removing the active H2 radicals. However, excessive amounts of O2 (i.e., fraction of O2 > ∼13%) and H2 were found to play a negative role in the growth of the CNTs. The control of the density and length of the CNTs was also achieved by varying the H2 plasma reduction time and CH4 plasma reacting time, respectively. Longer H2 reduction pretreatment of the catalytic metal islands resulted in the formation of a less dense CNT forest with craters. When the growth time of the CNTs was increased to ∼20 min, their length was increased to ∼10 μm. However, when the growth time of the CNTs exceeded 20 min, their length was significantly decreased, indicating that the continuous presence of O2 in the CH4 plasma destroys the preformed CNTs due to the oxidation reaction.