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Network approach has been applied to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify network structures of remitters and non-remitters in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) at baseline and the 6-month follow-up.
Participants (n = 252) from the Korean Early Psychosis Study (KEPS) were enrolled. They were classified as remitters or non-remitters using Andreasen's criteria. We estimated network structure with 10 symptoms (three symptoms from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, one depressive symptom, and six symptoms related to schema and rumination) as nodes using a Gaussian graphical model. Global and local network metrics were compared within and between the networks over time.
Global network metrics did not differ between the remitters and non-remitters at baseline or 6 months. However, the network structure and nodal strengths associated with positive-self and positive-others scores changed significantly in the remitters over time. Unique central symptoms for remitters and non-remitters were cognitive brooding and negative-self, respectively. The correlation stability coefficients for nodal strength were within the acceptable range.
Our findings indicate that network structure and some nodal strengths were more flexible in remitters. Negative-self could be an important target for therapeutic intervention.
Palaeoenvironmental history is reconstructed from diatoms in two sediment cores, GC01-PW02 and GC03-PW02, recovered from Powell Basin, Antarctica. A total of 43 species belonging to 21 genera are identified from GC01-PW02. A total of 61 species belonging to 27 genera are identified from GC03-PW02. The number of diatom valves g-1 of dry sediment ranges from 0.1–48.3 × 106 valves g-1. Based on diatom abundance, six assemblage zones were identified from GC01-PW02, and five diatom zones were identified from GC03-PW02. Barren intervals represent glacial periods, while intervals with higher diatom abundances were deposited during interglacial periods and reduced sea ice cover. The occurrence of Rouxia leventerae only within the deepest zone of each of the cores indicates that the core sediments were deposited since marine isotope stage (MIS) 6.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the unemployment experience and depressive symptoms among mid-aged (ages 45–59) and elderly (ages 60 or above) persons and to examine further the effects of unemployment insurance, industrial accident compensation insurance (IACI) and national pension on the stated relationship. Data were used from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) between 2006 and 2012. A total of 1,536 individuals employed at the 2006 baseline were followed. The association between employment status change during 2006 to 2008, 2008 to 2010 or 2010 to 2012 and depressive symptoms in years 2008, 2010 or 2012 were analysed using a generalised estimating equation model. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10) scale. The results showed that the ‘employed to unemployed’ group had statistically significant increases in depression scores in the mid-aged (β = 0.4884, p = 0.0038) and elderly (β = 0.8275, p ⩽ 0.0001) categories, compared to the ‘employed to employed’ group. Findings were maintained in groups without a social safety net. Contrastingly, the ‘employed to unemployed’ groups with unemployment insurance and IACI did not show statistically significant increases in depression scores. The ‘employed to unemployed’ category of individuals enrolled in the national pension system exhibited a lower increase of depression. Therefore, an enhanced focus on the mental health of unemployed individuals is required, in addition to the provision of a reliable social safety net.
During the past decade, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) has emerged and spread across the world.1 The major carbapenemase enzymes currently being reported are KPC, NDM-1, VIM, IMP, and OXA.2 Because carbapenemase can be effectively transmitted via mobile genetic elements, and current therapeutic options for CPE infections are extremely limited, CPE may be one of the most serious contemporary threats to public health. However, very little is known about the characteristics of CPE carriage during hospitalization. The aims of this study were to investigate the clearance rate of CPE carriage and determine the number of consecutive negative cultures required to confirm CPE clearance. We also examined CPE transmission among hospitalized patients.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1361–1362
Cancer is a leading cause of death, and the dietary pattern in Korea is changing rapidly from a traditional Korean diet to a Westernised diet. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary factors on cancer risk with a prospective cohort study. Among 26 815 individuals who participated in cancer screening examinations from September 2004 to December 2008, 8024 subjects who completed a self-administered questionnaire concerning demographic and lifestyle factors, and a 3 d food record were selected. As of September 2013, 387 cancer cases were identified from the National Cancer Registry System, and the remaining individuals were included in the control group. The hazard ratio (HR) of cancer for the subjects older than or equal to 50 years of age was higher (HR 1·80, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·31; P< 0·0001) than that for the other subjects. Red meat consumption, Na intake and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were positively associated with overall cancer incidence in men (HR 1·41, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·94; P= 0·0382), gastric cancer (HR 2·34, 95 % CI 1·06, 5·19; P= 0·0365) and thyroid cancer (HR 1·56, 95 % CI 1·05, 2·31; P= 0·0270), respectively. Participants who had at least three dietary risk factors among the high intakes of red meat and Na, low intakes of vegetables and fruits, and obesity suggested by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research at baseline tended to have a higher risk of cancer than the others (HR 1·26, 95 % CI 0·99, 1·60; P= 0·0653). In summary, high intakes of red meat and Na were significant risk factors of cancer among Koreans.
The crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films by electron beam exposure was studied. Amorphous silicon and silicon dioxide layers were deposited on glass substrate by PECVD at 360 °C. The optimization to crystallize 300 nm thick amorphous silicon film was carried out at a RF power of 300 W, DC voltage of 1500 V, Argon gas flow rate of 3 sccm and a distance between electron beam mesh and sample of 40 mm. High quality nano-crystalline silicon films with an activation energy of 0.47 eV from conductivity, a grain size of 15–45 nm from SEM and Raman crystalline volume fraction of 93.1% were fabricated. We expect that e-beam exposure will be applied to crystallization of amorphous silicon films.
As one of the most important force production mechanisms of swimming and flying animals, the fluid dynamics of flapping has been intensively studied. However, these efforts have been mainly directed toward animals in forward motion or locomotive appendages undergoing linear translation. Here we seek to complement the existing knowledge of the flapping mechanism by studying angularly reciprocating flat plates without a free stream velocity, under a so-called ‘bollard pull’ condition. We visualize the flow field around the flat plate to find that two independent vortical structures are formed per half-cycle, resulting in the separation of two distinct vortex pairs at sharp edges rather than a single vortex loop which is typical of a starting–stopping vortex paradigm in flows with free streams. Based on our observations, we derive a scaling law to predict the thrust of the flapping plate; this is the first experimentally validated theoretical model for the thrust of angularly reciprocating plates without a prescribed background flow.
Conus medullaris syndrome (CMS) is a clinical neurologic syndrome caused by a conus medullaris lesion. CMS is a heterogeneous entity with various etiologies such as trauma or a space-occupying lesion. Multiple cases of CMS following spinal anesthesia have been reported, but CMS after radioisotope (RI) cisternography has not yet been reported.
We present four patients who developed CMS after RI cisternography.
All experienced neurological deficits such as paraparesis, sensory loss, and urinary incontinence three to four days after RI cisternography. Two showed abnormalities on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, and three had complete symptom resolution within ten weeks.
The pathomechanism of the CMS is unclear, but we hypothesize that RI neurotoxicity might be responsible. It is possible that the use of low-dose 99mTc-DTPA or an alternative diagnostic tool such as magnetic resonance cisternography could help to prevent this complication.
Geochemical characteristics of marine sediment from the southern Drake Passage were analyzed to reconstruct variations in sediment provenance and transport paths during the late Quaternary. The 5.95 m gravity core used in this study records paleoenvironmental changes during the last approximately 600 ka. Down-core variations in trace element, rare earth element, and Nd and Sr isotopic compositions reveal that sediment provenance varied according to glacial cycles. During glacial periods, detrital sediments in the southern Drake Passage were mostly derived from the nearby South Shetland Islands and shelf sediments. In contrast, interglacial sediments are composed of mixed sediments, derived from both West Antarctica and East Antarctica. The East Antarctic provenance of the interglacial sediments was inferred to be the Weddell Sea region. Sediment input from the Weddell Sea was reduced during glacial periods by extensive ice sheets and weakened current from the Weddell Sea. Sediment supply from the Weddell Sea increased during interglacial periods, especially those with higher warmth such as MIS 5, 9, and 11. This suggests that the influence of deep water from the Weddell Sea increases during interglacial periods and decreases during glacial periods, with the degree of influence increasing as interglacial intensity increases.
Licorice extracts are known to exhibit anti-carcinogenic activities. However, chronic licorice consumption can lead to serious side effects due to the presence of considerable quantities of glycyrrhizin, which causes severe hypokalaemia and hypertension. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a hexane–ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (HEGU), which lacks glycyrrhizin, on the metastatic characteristics of DU145 prostate cancer cells. HEGU inhibited basal and epidermal growth factor-induced cell migration, invasion and adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion. HEGU significantly suppressed the secretion and activation of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 was reduced, but that of TIMP-2 was increased in HEGU-treated cells. HEGU reduced the protein levels of integrin-α2, the intercellular adhesion molecule, and the vascular cell adhesion molecule. An active fraction of HEGU was separated via column chromatography, and the structure of the active component, licoricidin, was identified via 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The treatment of DU145 cells with licoricidin induced a reduction in cell migration and the secretion of MMP-9, TIMP-1, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as in the expression of adhesion molecules. These results indicate that HEGU, which contains licoricidin, is a potent anti-metastatic agent, which can markedly inhibit the metastatic and invasive capacity of malignant prostate cancer cells. The observed reductions in the activation of proteases and the levels of adhesion molecules may constitute a component of the mechanisms by which HEGU inhibits the migration and adhesion of prostate cancer cells.
Ceria doped-yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12:Ce3+, YAG:Ce), which is known as an efficient phosphor, have been widely used in optical display and lighting applications. Improved wet chemical method, sol-gel, has been studied, since conventional solid-state reaction requires a high-temperature and prolonged heating to obtain the pure phase. However, there has been little information, such as on pre-firing temperature, concerning high-quality powder formed by the wet chemical process. In this work, YAG:Ce was synthesized with a salted sol-gel process in which a water solution of inorganic salt with citric acid as additive. Transparent starting sol was pre-fired at 200 ˜ 300°C for 2 hrs in air and final annealing to obtain phase-pure YAG:Ce particles was performed at 1100°C for 2 hrs in argon. The effects of pre-firing temperatures on the crystal structure, morphology and luminescence were investigated. Effects of residual organics in the pre-fired gel on the properties of finally annealed phosphors will be fully discussed on the basis of the results of thermal analysis and chemical structure.
We have fabricated a new magnetic field enhanced solid phase crystallization (FESPC) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film transistors (TFTs), which shows the excellent electrical characteristics and superior stability compared with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFTs. The mobility (μ) and threshold voltage (VTH) of p-type TFTs of which the channel width and length are 5 μm and 7 μm, respectively are 31.98 cm2/Vs and -6.14 V, at VDS=-0.1 V. In the FESPC TFTs, the characteristics caused by grain boundary are remarkable due to large number of grain boundaries in the channel compared with poly-Si TFTs. The VTH of the TFT which have 5 μm channel length is smaller than that of 18 μm channel length by 1.36 V, which is considerably large value. It is due to the large number of grain boundaries in the channel and the high lateral electric field. The grain boundary potential barrier height is decreased, when the large lateral electric field is applied (which is called DIGBL effect). As a result of increased mobility, the drain current is increased, and VTH can be decreased. The activation energy (Ea) is strongly depended on the drain bias and the number of grain boundaries. is decreased, caused by the large drain bias and/or smaller number of grain boundaries. This decreased Ea can be reduced VTH due to increased the drain current. VTH of p-type poly-Si TFT employing FESPC on the glass substrate is affected by channel length and VDS due to energy barrier lowering effect at the grain boundary by increased lateral electrical field.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have emerged as one of the most promising oxide materials owing to their optical and electrical properties, together with their high chemical and mechanical stability. Chemical solution deposition (CSD) is attractive technique for obtaining ZnO thin films and has the advantages of easy control of the film composition and easy fabrication of a larger-area thin film at low cost. In this work, epitaxial ZnO thin films on SiC substrate were prepared by using a CSD method with a zinc naphthenate precursor. Precursor films were pyrolyzed at 500°C for 10 min in air and finally annealed at 600°C, 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for 30 min in air. Crystallinity and in-plane alignment of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction theta-2 theta scan and pole-figure analysis. Scanning electron microscope, scanning probe microscope, and He-Cd laser (325 nm) are used to detect the surface morphology and photoluminescence of the films. The effects of annealing temperature on crystallinity and epitaxy of the films will be fully discussed on the basis of the results of X-ray diffraction analysis.
A bistable effects of Au nano-crystals embedded in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) were observed. Subsequently we investigated dependency of the nonvolatile memory behavior on curing temperature for the Au nano-crystals embedded in the PVK. For the study, in the devices of different curing temperatures we measured current-voltage characteristics for the devices and investigated the formation of the Au nano-crystals using cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nonvolatile memory behavior depends on the curing temperature, which is attributed to the suitable formation of the Au nano-crystal.
We present accurate BV light curves and continuum energy curves of the EROS eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud to find accurate binary parameters as well as their distances. The observations have been carried out using the 2.1 meter telescope in CASLEO Argentina during Feb. 1-10, 2003. We have concentrated CCD direct observations upon EROS field 1 and 2 to improve the accuracy of light curves of eclipsing binaries in the fields. The spectroscopic observations have been also carried out using the simple dispersion method to get continuum energy curves between wavelengths of 4000-8000 Å for several EROS eclipsing binaries. At first, we determined a combined temperature of both components of each binary system using the continuum. Then, the combined temperature was resolved using the first estimation of the light curve solution. Finally, we determined the photometric solutions of several binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
The present study was designed to define how dietary fat type regulates body adiposity in dietary obesity-susceptible (DOS) Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Eighty-three SD rats received a purified diet containing 50 g maize oil (MO)/kg for 3 weeks and then thirty-nine of the rats, designated as the DOS rats, were allotted to diets containing 160 g MO (DOS-MO), beef tallow (DOS-BT) or fish oil (DOS-FO)/kg for 9 weeks. As a result of the experiment, the DOS-FO rats had significantly (P<0·05) reduced weight gain and abdominal and epididymal fat-pad mass than the DOS-MO and DOS-BT rats. Serum leptin level was also significantly (P<0·05) lower in the DOS-FO rats; however, hypothalamic leptin receptor (a and b) mRNA and neuropeptide Y expressions were not altered by dietary fat sources. A lower acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA expression in the liver was observed in the DOS-FO group, whereas hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ mRNA and protein expressions were markedly elevated in the DOS-FO group compared with those in the other groups. We did not observe differences in acetyl-CoA carboxylase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expressions in epididymal fat of the DOS rats consuming MO, BT or FO. It is concluded from our present observations that dietary fat type, especially that rich in FO, plays a potential role in down-regulation of adiposity by altering hepatic lipogenic genes, rather than feeding behaviour, in the DOS-SD rats.
We studied on the thermal annealing effect on the residual stress and the mechanical properties in thin compressive stressed diamond-like carbon film on Si substrate. Annealing experiments were carried out with Rapid Thermal Procedure system at 200–600 °C, and the stress change with annealing temperature was investigated by in-situ stress measurement system. The apparent stress reduction occurred with minimal structure changes. In order to measure the change of chemical structure of diamond-like carbon film by annealing, we used Raman spectrometer. The adhesion deterioration in interface has been detected as annealing temperature increased. In the compressive stressed DLC film, we observed the dramatic evolution of interface delamination at certain high temperature using in-situ heating stage built in Environment SEM. The quantitative change of adhesion affected by annealing process was also measured with scratch testing. For exploring the interface structure affected by the thermal annealing process at high temperature, the cross section of annealed film has been observed with HR TEM.
An elachistacean epiphyte, Neoleptonema yongpilii E.-Y. Lee & I.K. Lee, gen. et sp. nov., is reported from Korean coasts. The plants are distinguished by having unbranched assimilatory filaments with intercalary plurilocular sporangia as well as lateral plurilocular sporangia from the cortex. The new genus differs from the genera Leptonematella P. Silva and Halothrix Reinke by having pod-shaped plurilocular sporangia on the medulla, and from Elachista Duby and Proselachista Y.P. Lee & Garbary by having intercalary plurilocular sporangia and a poorly developed medulla. The phylogenetic relationships of Neoleptonema yongpilii were inferred from the spacer sequences between the genes coding for the large and small subunits of the RuBisCO gene. The new genus is a member of a poorly resolved clade consisting of several genera within the Elachistaceae, within which it is more closely related to Halothrix and Elachista nipponica than to Leptonematella.