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The nutritional status experienced in the early development of life plays a vital role in the long-term metabolic state of the individual, which is known as nutritional programming. The present study investigated the long-term effects of vegetable oil (VO) nutritional programming during the early life of large yellow croaker. First, larvae were fed either a fish oil (FO) diet or a VO diet for 30 d. Subsequently, under the same conditions, all fish were fed a commercial diet for 90 d and thereafter challenged with an FO or VO diet for 30 d. The results showed that growth performance was significantly lower in larvae fed the VO diet than in those in fed the FO diet in the stimulus phase. Notably, VO nutritional history fish showed lower levels of liver lipids liver total triglycerides and serum nonesterified free fatty acids than the FO nutritional history fish when juveniles were challenged with the VO diet, which was consistent with the expression of lipogenesis-related genes and proteins. Moreover, the VO nutritional history fish showed lower liver damage and higher antioxidant capacity than FO nutritional history fish when challenged with the VO diet. In summary, this study showed that a short VO stimulus during the early life stage of large yellow croaker, had a long-term effect on lipid metabolism and the antioxidant system. Specifically, VO nutritional programming had a positive effect on alleviating abnormal lipid deposition on the liver, liver damage, and the reduction of hepatic antioxidant capacity caused by a VO diet.
Prospective cohort studies linking organ meat consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population. This prospective cohort study included a total of 15,568 adults who were free of liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Dietary information was collected at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD. During a median of 4.2 years of follow-up, we identified 3,604 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, vegetable, fruit, soft drink, seafood, and red meat consumption, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident NAFLD across consumption of organ meat were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 1.04 (0.94, 1.15) for tertile 1, 1.08 (0.99, 1.19) for tertile 2, and 1.11 (1.01, 1.22) for tertile 3, respectively (P for trend <0.05). Such association did not differ substantially in the sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that organ meat consumption was related to a modestly higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
High dietary fibre intake has been associated with a lower risk of diabetes, but the association of dietary fibre with prediabetes is only speculative, especially in China, where the supportive data from prospective studies are lacking. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary fibre intake and risk of incident prediabetes among Chinese adults. We performed a prospective analysis in 18 085 participants of the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health cohort study who were free of diabetes, prediabetes, cancer and CVD at baseline. Dietary data were collected using a validated 100-item FFQ. Prediabetes was defined based on the American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. During 63 175 person-years of follow-up, 4139 cases of incident prediabetes occurred. The multivariable HR of prediabetes for the highest v. lowest quartiles were 0·85 (95 % CI 0·75, 0·98) (P for trend = 0·02) for total dietary fibre, 0·84 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·95) (P for trend < 0·01) for soluble fibre and 1·05 (95 % CI 0·93, 1·19) (P for trend = 0·38) for insoluble fibre. Fibre from fruits but not from cereals, beans and vegetables was inversely associated with prediabetes. Our results indicate that intakes of total dietary fibre, soluble fibre and fibre derived from fruit sources were associated with a lower risk of prediabetes.
To assess the relationship between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and related parameters to the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms. Clinical data from 38 COVID-19 patients who were diagnosed, treated and discharged from the Qishan Hospital in Yantai over the period from January to February 2020 were analysed. NLR and procalcitonin (PCT) were determined in the first and fourth weeks after their admission, along with the clinical characteristics and laboratory test results of these patients. Based on results as obtained on the first and fourth weeks after admission, five indices consisting of NLR, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes (LY) and monocytes (MON) were selected to generate receiver operating characteristic curves, while optimal cutoff values, sensitivities and specificities were obtained according to the Yuden index. Statistically significant differences in neutrophils, LY and the NLR were present in the severe vs. moderate COVID-19 group from the first to the fourth week of their hospitalisation. The cut-off value of NLR for predicting the severity of COVID-19 was 4.425, with a sensitivity of 0.855 and a specificity of 0.979. A statistically significant positive correlation was present between PCT and NLR in the severe group as determined within the first week of admission. NLR can serve as a predictor of COVID-19 disease severity as patients' progress from the first to the fourth week of their hospitalisation. The statistically significant positive correlation between levels of NLR and PCT in severe patients indicated that increases in NLR were accompanied with gradual increases in PCT.
Seaweeds have numerous biologically active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, polyphenols and carotenoids, that are beneficial to human health. Although these benefits might be related to the synthesis, secretion or reabsorption of uric acid, no studies have explored the relationship between seaweeds consumption and hyperuricaemia (HUA) in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether seaweeds consumption is related to HUA in a large-scale adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 32 365 adults (17 328 men and 15 037 women) in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Frequency of seaweeds consumption was assessed by a validated self-administered FFQ. HUA was defined as serum uric acid levels >420 μmol/L in men and >350 μmol/L in women. The association between seaweeds consumption and HUA was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Restricted cubic spline functions were used for non-linearity tests. The prevalence of HUA in men and women was 21·17 % and 5·93 %, respectively. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the OR (95 % CI) for HUA across seaweed consumption (g/1000 kcal per d) were 1·00 (reference) for level 1, 0·91 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·02) for level 2; 0·90 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·01) for level 3; 0·86 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) for level 4 in men and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·10) for level 2; 0·82 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·00) for level 3; 0·84 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·03) for level 4 in women, respectively. A negative correlation between seaweeds consumption and HUA in males but not in females was observed. Further studies are needed to explore the causal relationship.
According to the World Health Organization, there were approximately 0.5 million new cases of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in 2018, of which 78 percent were multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and China has one of the largest shares of the global burden (14%). In recent years, the Chinese government has made progress in TB control and prevention, but for MDR-TB, treatment options are still limited and expensive, and novel drugs are not always available. This research aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding bedaquiline to a background regimen (BR) of drugs for MDR-TB treatment in China, and to provide evidence for government to improve public health policies.
A cohort-based Markov model was developed to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR) versus BR alone in MDR-TB treatment, over a 10-year time horizon. Data were sourced from a phase II clinical trial, real-world data in China, published literature, and expert opinion. Outcomes were evaluated in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and life-years gained (LYG). The discount rate was 3.5%. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were conducted.
The discounted costs per person for BBR was CNY 135,706 [USD 19,172], compared with CNY 92,465 [USD 13,063] for BR. The discounted utility per person for BBR was also higher than that for BR (3.943 QALYs versus 3.193 QALYs). The ICER of BBR was CNY 58,096 [USD 8,208]/QALY, which was lower than the willingness-to-pay threshold of CNY 212,676 [USD 30,046] (three-times the gross domestic product per capita). Therefore, BBR was considered to be cost-effective. The sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. BBR remained cost-effective in the sensitivity analysis, with a 77.2 percent probability of being cost-effective versus BR.
In China, bedaquiline is not included in the National Reimbursement Medicine List, which results in a heavy financial burden for MDR-TB patients. From this study, BBR was cost-effective by significantly reducing time to sputum culture conversion and increasing QALYs and LYGs, which offset the higher drug costs.
Malignant tumors have become a major public health problem and their treatment cost is increasing rapidly in China, but treatment aimed at healing diseases or extending patients’ life. There is little empirical research on utilization of healthcare resources of terminally ill cancer patients. In order to explore the optimal treatment decision for patients and provide information for relevant decision makers, this study analyzed the consumption status of medical resources in patients with cancer during the whole treatment period, and the current medical resource utilization efficiency in different levels of hospital for end-stage cancer patients.
This study was based on the clinical treatment and payment data of 2,536 cases of patients with lung cancer from the medical insurance database during the period of 2007 to 2014 in Hubei province. We retrospectively analyzed patients’ medical expenditure and utilization of different medical resources during their whole treatment period as well as at the end stage.
The per capita inpatient expenditures of patients under 50 years old was 193,000 CNY (27,451 USD), while that of the patients over 70 years were 80,000–90,000 CNY (11,379–12,802 USD). Secondly, the medical expenditures spent during the last 6 months of life accounted for 66.1 percent of the total expenditures. Lastly, the medical expenditure spent in tertiary hospitals accounted for 95.3 percent of the total expenditure, and the expenditure was 14,200 ± 17,030 CNY (2,019.82 ± 2,422.36 USD) per visit.
Population aging is not the only factor causing the rise of medical expenditure. The unclear objectives of treatment and the reverse of medical resource allocation are also important factors to boost the growth of medical expenditure. It is necessary to improve the healthcare insurance payment system, strengthen the capacity of primary medical institutions, and develop the palliative care system in China.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), remarkable achievements have been made in poverty alleviation. Over the past five years, the population of people living in poverty had decreased by 68.53million, fallen from 98.99 million in 2012 to 30.46 million at the end of 2017. As an impoverished province, Hebei province has been implementing the CPC Central Committee's guidance in the battle against poverty. In 2016, the government released the Implementation Scheme Plan for Improving the Level of Medical Security and Assistance. The plan introduces multi-layer medical security and assistance mechanisms which covers basic medical insurance, major disease insurance and medical assistance. In 2017, the government formulated the Implementation Plan for the Three-Batch Action Plan on the Health Care Program for Poverty Alleviation in Hebei Province, for people with major disease. Hebei Province has carried out many explorations on the health care program for poverty alleviation, and its effectiveness is a problem worthy of attention.
Based on data including basic medical insurance, major illness insurance, medical assistance, and other related information, we used descriptive statistics and quantitative methods to evaluate the overall expenditure of the poverty alleviation for Hebei province and the areas under its jurisdiction. Additionally, the expenditure of different levels of medical security system, the medical burden for people facing poverty and the distribution of disease in the population with assistance were evaluated.
The out-of-pocket payment per capita has decreased year by year, and it has dropped to 3% of catastrophic medical expenditure and 20% below the poverty line by June 2018. An imbalanced situation occurred with the implementation, with the more impoverished areas having greater the pressure on medical care and poverty alleviation. For people with medical assistance, diseases with higher population and overall expenditure are cerebrovascular disease, malignant tumor, diabetes and some other chronic diseases.
The health policies for poverty alleviation in Hebei province has achieved a remarkable success, and the medical burden of the poor has been significantly reduced. However, the implementation of the policies in various cities has shown an imbalanced situation, and the poverty alleviation policies need to be further improved.
The study of enclaves in granitic plutons provides fundamental information on the petrogenesis of their host rocks. Here we combine U–Pb zircon ages, petrography, geochemistry and Nd–Hf isotope composition to investigate the origin of dioritic–granodioritic enclaves and their host granodiorites and biotite granites in the Xuehuading–Panshanchong area, which is a pivotal site to study the Palaeozoic intracontinental orogenic processes of the South China Block. Obtained ages indicate that the host rocks were formed in early Silurian time (c. 432 Ma). The enclaves are fine grained, but with mineral assemblages similar to their hosts and contain amphibole, biotite and plagioclase. All rocks have fractionated rare earth element patterns ((La/Yb)N = 2.86–8.16), except for one biotite granite that has a concave rare earth element pattern ((La/Yb)N = 1.50). Most rocks are depleted in Ta–Nb–Ti, and have negative Eu anomalies and ϵNd(t) (–8.86 to –5.75) and zircon ϵHf(t) (–13.30 to –4.11, except for one, –39.08). We interpret that the enclaves were formed at the borders of magma-ascending conduits, where the mafic mineral crystallization was enhanced by rapid cooling. Conversely, the biotite granites were produced by fractional crystallization from a related granodiorite magma. The sample with a concave rare earth element pattern may have been influenced by hydrothermal fluid–melt interaction. Geochemical modelling suggests that the granodiorites were likely generated by disequilibrium melting of heterogeneous amphibolites in the middle–lower crust. Considering the geological data for the Palaeozoic magmatic rocks in the South China Block, we propose that the Xuehuading–Panshanchong magmatism was likely triggered by piecemeal removal of the thickened lithospheric root and subsequent thermal upwelling of mantle, without a mantle-derived magma contribution to the granites.
The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.
Solid solution 0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3–6BaTiO3 (NBT–6BT) is considered to be one kind of lead-free piezoelectric materials with excellent electrical properties due to the existence of morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). However, its relatively lower depolarization temperature is a long-standing bottleneck for the application of NBT-based piezoelectric ceramics. In this work, the influence of thermal quenching on depolarization temperature and electrical properties of rare-earth Ho-doped NBT–6BT lead-free ceramics was investigated. It was shown that the relative high piezoelectric performance, as well as an improvement of depolarization temperature (Td), can be realized by thermal quenching. The results showed that the quenching process induced high concentration of oxygen vacancy, giving rise to the change of octahedra mode and enhanced lattice distortion, which is benefit to the temperature stability of piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. Furthermore, up-conversion photoluminescence (PL) of Ho-doped NBT–6BT could be effectively tuned by the introduction of oxygen vacancy, suggesting a promising potential in optical–electrical multifunctional devices.
There is growing interest globally in using real-world data (RWD) and real-world evidence (RWE) for health technology assessment (HTA). Optimal collection, analysis, and use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA requires a conceptual framework to standardize processes and ensure consistency. However, such framework is currently lacking in Asia, a region that is likely to benefit from RWD/RWE for at least two reasons. First, there is often limited Asian representation in clinical trials unless specifically conducted in Asian populations, and RWD may help to fill the evidence gap. Second, in a few Asian health systems, reimbursement decisions are not made at market entry; thus, allowing RWD/RWE to be collected to give more certainty about the effectiveness of technologies in the local setting and inform their appropriate use. Furthermore, an alignment of RWD/RWE policies across Asia would equip decision makers with context-relevant evidence, and improve timely patient access to new technologies. Using data collected from eleven health systems in Asia, this paper provides a review of the current landscape of RWD/RWE in Asia to inform HTA and explores a way forward to align policies within the region. This paper concludes with a proposal to establish an international collaboration among academics and HTA agencies in the region: the REAL World Data In ASia for HEalth Technology Assessment in Reimbursement (REALISE) working group, which seeks to develop a non-binding guidance document on the use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA for decision making in Asia.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between dietary fibre (DF) intake and depressive symptoms in a general adult population in Tianjin, China. A total of 24 306 participants (mean age 41 years; range 18–91 years) were enrolled. DF intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Socio-demographic, behavioural, health status and dietary factors were adjusted. In men, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for total, soluble, vegetable and soya DF, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·83 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·99), 0·74 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·87), 0·79 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·96) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·81), respectively. In women, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for vegetable and soya DF, the OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·93) and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·95), respectively. No association was found between total or soluble DF intake and depressive symptoms in women. No association was found between insoluble, cereal, fruit or tuber DF intake and depressive symptoms in men and women. Linear associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were only detected for soya DF (men, β = –0·148, P < 0·0001; women, β = –0·069, P = 0·04). Results suggest that intake of soluble, vegetable and soya DF was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. These results should be confirmed through prospective and interventional studies.
No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence has suggested the protective effects of honey consumption against the metabolic syndrome, but the association between honey intake and NAFLD is still unclear. We investigated how the consumption frequency of honey was associated with NAFLD in the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 979 adults aged 20–90 years. NAFLD was diagnosed based on the ultrasound-diagnosed fatty liver without significant alcohol intake and other liver diseases. Diet information, including consumption frequency of honey, was assessed by a validated 100-item FFQ. OR with 95 % CI were calculated by the binary logistic regression model, adjusting for confounding factors identified by the directed acyclic graph. Overall, 6513 adults (29·6 %) had NAFLD. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 time/week of honey, the multivariable OR of NAFLD were 0·86 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·97) for 2–6 times/week and 1·10 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·27) for ≥1 times/d (Pfor trend = 0·90). The results were generally similar in subgroups of BMI at a cut-point of 24·0 kg/m2 (Pfor interaction = 0·10). In this large-scale study, consuming honey 2–6 times/week was inversely associated with NAFLD, whereas consuming honey ≥1 times/d had no association with NAFLD. These results need replication in other large-scale prospective studies.
Evidence has suggested that honey intake has a beneficial impact on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether these findings apply to adults with prediabetes is yet unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether honey intake is associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 18 281 participants (mean age 39·6 (sd 11·1) years; men, 51·5 %). Dietary intake was assessed through a validated 100-item FFQ. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria: impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or raised glycosylated Hb. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between honey consumption and prediabetes. As compared with those who almost never consumed honey, the multivariable OR of prediabetes were 0·94 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·02) for ≤3 times/week, 0·77 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·94) for 4–6 times/week and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·99) for ≥1 time/d (Pfor trend < 0·01). These associations did not differ substantially in sensitivity analysis. Higher honey consumption was associated with a decreased prevalence of prediabetes. More large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate this association.
Research on top management team (TMT) diversity suggests that diverse backgrounds improve technological exploration. However, this diversity may also cause demographic faultlines that break a team into subgroups and undermine team performance, and the status difference between CEO and top managers may change inter-subgroup dynamics. We predicted that TMT faultline had an inverted U-shape relationship with technological exploration. Further, we predicted that the effects of TMT faultline were more prominent when the CEO is in the minority subgroup than when the CEO was in the majority subgroup. Using a longitudinal sample from the US IT services industry, the results found that TMT faultline exhibited an inverted U-shape relationship with technological exploration only when the CEO was in the minority subgroup, and such relationship disappeared when the CEO was in the majority subgroup.
Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD is unknown in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of mushroom intake with NAFLD among Chinese adults. This is a cross-sectional study of 24 236 adults (mean (standard deviation) age: 40·7 (sd 11·9) years; 11 394 men (47·0 %)). Mushroom intake was assessed via a validated FFQ. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was identified based on the results of annual health examinations, including ultrasound findings and a self-reported history of the disease. Multiple logistic models were used to examine the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD. The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 19·0 %. Compared with those consuming mushrooms less frequently (≤1 time/week), the fully adjusted OR of newly diagnosed NAFLD were 0·95 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·05) for those consuming 2–3 times/week and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·92) for those consuming ≥4 times/week (Pfor trend = 0·01). The inverse association was consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex and BMI. In conclusion, higher mushroom intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Future research is required to understand the causal association between mushroom intake and NAFLD.
Flexible electrode is an indispensable component of emerging portable, flexible, and wearable electronic devices. Although various flexible electrodes with different dimensions and functions have been explored, developing a new electrode material with excellent mechanical reliability and superior electrical performance remains a challenge. Here, a graphene-covered Cu composite electrode film with a total thickness of ∼100 nm is successfully fabricated onto a flexible polyimide substrate by means of a series of assembly methods including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and transfer technique. The composite electrode film on the flexible substrate exhibits evidently enhanced tensile strength, monotonic bending, and repeatedly bending fatigue reliability as well as electrical performance compared with that of the bared Cu film electrode. Such excellent mechanical performances are attributed to the role of the graphene coating in suppressing fatigue damage formation and preventing crack advance. It is expected that the chemical vapor-deposited graphene-covered Cu composite electrode would extend the potential ultrathin metal film electrode as the innovative electrode material for the next-generation flexible electronic devices.