To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The root-knot nematodes (RKN) (Meloidogyne graminicola) are a devastating threat to rice worldwide. The cultivated germplasm is either susceptible or moderately resistant to rice RKN. Therefore, there is a need to identify resistance sources against M. graminicola as an eco-friendly management strategy. The present study evaluated the host response of Oryza sativa genotypes comprising basmati, non-basmati improved varieties, their advanced breeding lines (83) and Oryza glaberrima accessions (42) against M. graminicola in the nematode-infested plot for two consecutive years. All O. sativa genotypes exhibited susceptible responses, while O. glaberrima accessions showed variable levels of resistance. Three of the O. glaberrima accessions (IRGC102196, IRGC102538 and IRGC102557) were highly resistant. M. graminicola significantly affected plant growth parameters in susceptible genotypes compared to resistant O. glaberrima accessions. The results were supported by histopathological studies that showed apparent giant cell formation in PR121 while penetration and development of M. graminicola juveniles were low in the O. glaberrima acc. IRGC102196. In silico analysis indicated that none of the reported nematode resistance genes from different crops had homology with the rice genome. The two anti-nematode genes (Oryzacystatin-I and Oryzacystatin-II) from O. sativa japonica revealed homology with O. sativa cv. PR121 and O. glaberrima acc. IRGC102206. Comparative analysis of these genes between PR121 and O. glaberrima acc. IRGC102206 resulted in the identification of SNPs/InDels that could be associated with nematode resistance. The identified SNPs/InDels could be validated, and further molecular studies are needed to provide insights into the resistance mechanism against rice RKN.
Maintaining telecentricity and zooming in microscopic systems with prolonged depths of focus is a difficult challenge because these properties degrade while moving to different axial planes in the extended focal depth. In this paper, we propose the proof of concept for an automated dual-mode microscopic system that combines two electrically tunable lenses (ETLs) with a variable numerical aperture controller placed. It acts as a viable solution to allow both multiplane microscopic zooming and telecentricity with consistent image resolution throughout the objective's extended focal depth. The image plane remains fixed for both the modes of operation, namely telecentricity and multiplane zooming. To validate the performance of the proposed idea, both simulations and experiments are carried out at various ETL curvature ranges. Over the whole zoom distance range, the experimental zoom ratio is determined to range from −2.723X to −34.42X. The experimental and simulation findings are compared and found to be quite similar, with magnification error percentages of 2.26% for zoom mode and 1.27% for telecentric mode. The comprehensive explanation of simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for both multiplane zoom and telecentric operations on a single platform in microscopic applications.
Distant hybridization of cereals is often impaired by fertilization barriers. Haploid induction through intergeneric crossing is well developed in wheat but has not been successful in rice due to incompatibility issues. The present study was thus undertaken to identify fertilization barriers that hinder the compatibility of the rice cultivar Punjab Rice 121 with maize and pearl millet lines as pollinators. A total of 37,357 spikelets were pollinated, yielding 494 caryopses upon supplementation with auxins. The resultant caryopses, arising from true intergeneric crosses, lacked embryos. Imaging of the pollinated pistils at different intervals indicated that intense callose depositions block the release of generative nuclei to the ovule in these wide crosses. Rice spikelets pollinated with rice pollen (cis-generic crosses) exhibited positive indicators of fertilization reaction at the micropyle. While the cis-generic crosses initiated true caryopsis formation after 24 h, no comparative reaction was observed in the intergeneric crosses. The current survey underlines that the rice female gametophyte presents a strong pre-fertilization barrier to foreign pollen. This barrier may be modulated in the future by altering genotype and auxin combinations.
Drought is the major abiotic constraint to the rice production in the rain-fed areas across Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Wild species of Oryza offer a wide spectrum of adaptive traits and can serve as potential donors of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. At the Punjab Agricultural University, we are maintaining an active collection of 1630 accessions of wild species germplasm (AA, CC, BBCC and CCDD) of rice. These accessions were screened to assess genetic variation for drought tolerance under field conditions. Severe water stress was imposed at the late vegetative stage by withholding water initially for 25 d and then extended further to 35 d during kharif season in the years 2013–14 and 2015–16. The tolerance score for drought stress was based on the extent of leaf rolling and leaf drying. Based on the 2 years’ data, seven accessions from Oryza rufipogon, four from Oryza longistaminata and one each from Oryza officinalis and Oryza latifolia were found tolerant to drought stress. These selected accessions were further phenotype for root morphology. The average root length among the selected accessions ranges between 36 and 80 cm and the number of primary roots vary from 30 to 87 cm. The O. rufipogon accession IRGC 106433, O. longistaminata accession IRGC 92656A, O. officinalis accession IRGC 101152 and O. latifolia accession IRGC 80769 showed approximately 2–2.5 times longer root length and number than the indica rice elite cultivar PR121. The results indicated potentiality of selected wild species germplasm for conferring drought tolerance to the elite cultivars.
Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a major biotic constraint of rice production in all the major irrigated/lowland rice growing regions of Asia, including Punjab and its adjoining states in India. None of the individual BB resistant Xa/xa genes is effective against Punjab pathotypes. In the present study, we have screened 1176 accessions, comprising 1007 accessions of A genome species Oryza glaberrima, O. barthii, O. nivara, O. rufipogon, O. longistaminata, O. meridionalis, O. glumaepatula and 169 accessions from ten other wild species having CC, FF, EE, BBCC and CCDD genomes against two most recently evolved Xoo pathotypes viz. PbXo-10 and PbXo-8 in Punjab state of India, for two constitutive years 2014 and 2015. Based on 2 years of data, four accessions of O. glaberrima (IRGC102206, IRGC1022445, IRGC102512 and IRGC102520) and two of the O. longistaminata accessions (IRGC92624 and IRGC101754) were identified with immune reaction against PbXo-8. For PbXo-10, O. longistaminata showed large number of accessions with complete to partial resistance followed by O. rufipogon (8), O. nivara (2), O. punctata (2) and O. officinalis (1). Two of the O. longistaminata accessions IRGC92624 and IRGC92644 from Mali were found to have resistance against both the Xoo pathotypes indicating presence of BB resistance gene other than Xa21. These can be transferred to elite cultivars of O. sativa for better management of BB.
Graminaceous plants including staple cereals secrete certain phytosiderophores (PS) in calcareous soils with lower iron and zinc availability to enhance their uptake and translocation to the leaves and grains. A few Triticum aestivum cultivars and accessions of six Aegilops species were investigated for release of PS in vitro under iron- and zinc-sufficient and -deficient conditions, and for root and shoot iron and zinc concentrations. All the Aegilops species had three to four times higher release of PS than the wheat cultivars under both nutrient-sufficient and -deficient conditions. The maximum rate of increase of PS was observed on days 11 and 14 under iron- and zinc-deficient conditions, respectively, which levelled off rapidly among the wheat cultivars and continued to be high among Aegilops species till the end of the experiment. The absolute amount of iron and zinc expressed on dry weight basis after 18 d under iron- and zinc-deficient conditions showed nearly three times higher concentration in both roots and shoots of Aegilops species than that of the wheat cultivars. A significantly high correlation between concentrations of iron (r = 0.94) and zinc (r = 0.91) in roots and the PS released was found. The higher grain iron and zinc contents in the Aegilops species reported earlier may be attributed to their diverse and efficient mechanism(s) for PS-mediated micronutrient uptake and translocation system, which could be exploited for biofortification of wheat.
Synthetic amphiploids between Triticum aestivum (AABBDD) landrace Chinese Spring (PhI) and cultivar WL711 with different accessions of Aegilops kotschyi (UUSlSl) were developed through colchicine treatment of sterile hybrids. The F1 hybrids and amphiploid plants were intermediate between the parents for plant morphology and spike characteristics. Meiotic metaphase chromosome analysis of the F1 hybrids (ABDUSl) showed the expected chromosome number (35) and very little but variable homoeologous chromosome pairing. The amphiploids (AABBDDUUSlSl), however, had variable frequency of univalents at meiotic metaphase-I. The SDS–PAGE of high molecular weight glutenin subunits of amphiploids along with the parents showed the presence and expression of all the parental genomes in the amphiploids. The amphiploids with seeds as large as that of wheat cultivars had higher grain, flag leaf and grain ash iron and zinc concentrations than the wheat parents and comparable with those of their Ae. kotschyi parents suggest that Ae. kotschyi possesses a distinctive genetic system for the micronutrient uptake, translocation and sequestration than the wheat cultivars. This could, however, be demonstrated unequivocally only with comprehensive data on biomass, grain yield and harvest index of the Aegilops donors and the synthetic amphiploids, which is not feasible due to their shattering and hard threshing. The use of amphiploids for the transfer of high iron and zinc concentrations and development of alien addition and substitution lines in wheat is in progress.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.