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This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place in June 2015 in outdoor public spaces at the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the Productions of a Poor Acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces. Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become integrated within the analysis in our pursuit of the most comprehensive interpretation of the pieces possible.
The cyclooctadepsipeptide PF1022A and the aminophenylamidines amidantel, deacylated amidantel (dAMD) and tribendimidine were tested as examples for drug classes potentially interesting for development as anthelmintics against human helminthiases. These compounds and levamisole were tested alone and in combination to determine their efficacy against the rat hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. After three oral treatments, intestinal worms were counted. Drug effects on parasite morphology were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined for tribendimidine and dAMD. All drugs reduced worm burden in a dose-dependent manner, however amidantel was significantly less active than the other aminophenylamidines. Combinations of tribendimidine and dAMD with levamisole or PF1022A at suboptimal doses revealed additive effects. While PF1022A caused virtually no changes in morphology, levamisole, dAMD and tribendimidine caused severe contraction, particularly in the hind body region. Worms exposed to combinations of PF1022A and aminophenylamidines were indistinguishable from worms exposed only to aminophenylamidines. After oral treatment with tribendimidine, only the active metabolite dAMD was detectable in plasma and concentrations were not significantly different for oral treatment with dAMD. The results support further evaluation of cyclooctadepsipeptides alone and in combination with cholinergic drugs to improve efficacy. Combining these with registered drugs may help to prevent development of resistance.
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