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Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) has been used for many centuries in traditional Indian Ayurvedic formulations for the prevention and treatment of many inflammatory diseases. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties of amla fruit extract. The amla fruit extract potentially and significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor expression and von Willebrand factor release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations (1–100 μg/ml). In a leucocyte adhesion model of inflammation, it also significantly decreased LPS-induced adhesion of human monocytic cells (THP-1) to the HUVEC, as well as reduced the expression of endothelial-leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) in the target cells. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in a LPS-induced endotoxaemia rat model. Oral administration of the amla fruit extract (50 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum. These results suggest that amla fruit extract may be an effective anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory agent.
Natural out-crossing rates were evaluated for conventional soybeans
(Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivated adjacent to genetically modified (GM)
glyphosate-tolerant soybeans under field conditions during a four-year
period in Japan. A total of 107 846 progeny of 2772 plants harvested from
conventional varieties were screened for glyphosate herbicide tolerance. The
highest out-crossing rates, 0.19% in 2001 and 0.16% in 2002, were
observed in adjacent rows 0.7 m from the pollen source. The highest rate in
2004 was 0.052%, which was observed at 2.1 m. No out-crossing was
observed in the rows 10.5 m from the pollen source over the four-year
period. The farthest distances between receptor and pollen source at which
out-crossing was observed were 7 m in 2001, 2.8 m in 2002, and 3.5 m in
2004. The greatest airborne pollen density during the flowering period,
determined by Durham pollen samplers located between the rows of each
variety, was 0.368 grains.cm-2.day-1, with the average value at 0.18
grains.cm-2.day-1, indicating that the possibility of out-crossing by wind
is minimal. Thrips species and predatory Hemiptera visited the soybean
flowers more frequently during the four-year period than any other common
pollinators, such as bees.
We have investigated the influence of nitrogen incorporation into the HfAlOx film prepared by LL-D&A process with NH3 annealing step on structural change and electrical properties. Also, we have evaluated the effects of PDA treatment on electrical properties. Nitrogen concentration in HfAlOx(N) film was enhanced with increasing the NH3 annealing temperature. The shift of Hf 4f average binding energy towards lower side was observed in proportion to nitrogen concentration in HfAlOx(N) film. This result indicates the partial change of the local coordination from O-Hf-O to O-Hf-N. The increase of O-Hf-N component drastically degraded the gate leakage current in HfAlOx(N) film. Nitrogen atoms still maintained in HfAlOx(N) film even after PDA at 850°C in O2 ambient. PDA treatment at higher temperature after D&A(NH3) process improved the flat-band voltage shift and the electron mobility.
Our efforts to combine the combinatorial technology and microstructure analysis to develop catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology have been described. This offers the realization of “materiomics” in comprehensive material research. Catalyst technologies are indispensable for wide use of PEMFC, which are regarded as the low emission and highly efficient energy conversion device for the next generation. We have applied the combinatorial method for the hydrogen production and/or purification of catalysts, and anode catalyst investigations. The catalyst library consisting of precious metals loaded on various metal oxides was tested for water gas shift reaction and steam reforming of methanol and/or DME. Various metal oxides added to platinum loaded on carbon were screened for anode catalysts. The microstructure of each catalyst was analyzed by employing scanning electron and/or transmission electron microscopy. This paper mainly describes the catalysis screening results of above reactions that form a part of “materiomics”.
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