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Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduces postprandial TAG absorption and exerts anti-obesity effects in rats and humans; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we addressed the mechanistic insights of the anti-obesity activity of LG2055 by feeding Sprague–Dawley rats diets containing skimmed milk fermented or not by LG2055 for 4 weeks and by analysing energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, the levels of SCFA in the caecum and serum inflammatory markers. Rats fed the LG2055-containing diet demonstrated significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation in the dark cycle (active phase for rats) compared with the control group, which resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditure. LG2055 significantly reduced cumulative blood glucose levels (AUC) compared with the control diet after 3 weeks and increased the molar ratio of butyrate:total SCFA in the caecum after 4 weeks. Furthermore, the LG2055-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of serum amyloid P component – an indicator of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, the intake of probiotic LG2055 enhanced energy expenditure via carbohydrate oxidation, improved glucose tolerance and attenuated inflammation, suggesting multiple additive and/or synergistic actions underlying the anti-obesity effects exerted by LG2055.
In the present study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of cysteine (0.0, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 mM) added to the maturation medium on nuclear maturation and subsequent embryonic development of bovine oocytes exposed to heat stress (HS: set at 39.5 °C for 5 h, 40.0 °C for 5 h, 40.5 °C for 6 h, and 40.0 °C for 4 h versus 38.5 °C for 20 h as the control group). This regime mimicked the circadian rhythm of the vaginal temperature of lactating dairy cows during the summer season in southwestern Japan. Moreover, we also evaluated the oocyte's reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels and the apoptosis levels of the oocytes and cumulus cells in the presence or absence of 1.2 mM cysteine. As a result, HS in the without-cysteine group significantly suppressed (p < 0.05) both the nuclear maturation rate up to the metaphase (M)II stage and the blastocyst formation rate compared with that of the control group. In addition, this group showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) ROS levels and significantly lower (p < 0.05) GSH levels than those of the control group. Moreover, the level of TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL)-positive cumulus cells in the HS without-cysteine group was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the control group. However, the addition of 1.2 mM cysteine to the maturation medium restored not only the nuclear maturation, blastocyst formation rates and GSH contents, but also increased the ROS and TUNEL-positive levels of the cumulus cells, but not oocytes, to that of the control group. These results indicate that the addition of 1.2 mM cysteine during in vitro maturation (IVM) may alleviate the influence of heat stress for oocyte developmental competence by increasing GSH content and inhibiting the production of oocyte ROS followed by apoptosis of cumulus cells.
By optimizing the heating rate during spark-plasma-sintering (SPS) processing, a high-strength transparent spinel (MgAl2O4) can be successfully fabricated for only a 20-min soak at 1300 °C. For the heating rates of ≤10 °C/min, the spinel exhibits an excellent combination of in-line transmission (50–70%), four-point-bending strength (>400 MPa), and hardness (>15 GPa). The excellent optical and mechanical properties can be ascribed to the superimposed effects of the sub-micrograin size, fine-pore size, and low porosity, which are related closely to the heating rate during the SPS processing. The present study demonstrates that to attain a high-strength transparent spinel at low temperatures and short sintering times, the low-heating-rate SPS processing is more efficient compared with the high-heating-rate SPS processing.
The role of MgAl2O4 spinel particle dispersion for attaining high-strain-rate superplasticity (HSRS) was examined in tetragonal ZrO2. Microstructural examination shows that the dispersed spinel particles provide the following positive factors to ZrO2 simultaneously: (i) stable fine grain size by retarding grain growth due to pinning effect; and (ii) enhanced accommodation due to accelerated lattice diffusivity caused by the dissolution of aluminum and magnesium into ZrO2 from the spinel particles, and accelerated relaxation of stress concentrations exerted by grain boundary sliding through dislocation motion. These positive factors make it possible to attain HSRS in ZrO2.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally
written up for the volume.
The development of texture can be controlled by slip casting and EPD in a
strong magnetic field followed by heating even for diamagnetic ceramics
such as alumina. We mesured the mechanical properties of the textured
alulmina and the alumina/alumina laminar composites with different
The role of MgAl2O4 spinel particle dispersion in high-strain-rate superplasticity (HSRS) of tetragonal ZrO2 was examined by characterizing microstructural changes during deformation. The dispersed spinel particles elongate with strain along tensile direction and the elongation tends to be pronounced with increasing strain rate. In the elongated spinel particles, intragranular dislocations lying along the elongated direction were observed, suggesting that the elongation relates to the dislocation motion. The flow behavior characterized by a stress exponent of ≈ 2.0 suggests that grain boundary sliding (GBS) is the predominant flow mechanism. The dislocation-induced plasticity in the spinel particles may assist the relaxation of stress concentrations exerted by GBS, leading to HSRS in tetragonal ZrO2.
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