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From the deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps ecosystems, more than 600 species containing many endemic species have been discovered. The deep-sea mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus are dominant species at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps throughout the world. They are known to rely on the nutrients produced by the chemosynthetic symbiont in their gills. In 2009, we found a colony of bathymodiolin mussels at a hydrothermal vent of Myojinsho (Myojin Reef), which is a hardly investigated area. Myojinsho lies in the northern segment of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Arc and had been volcanically active until recently. We collected specimens from the colony using a remotely operated vehicle. We identified them as Bathymodiolus aduloides by morphological observation and phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequencing. We could not find any other species of mussels during the dive. This result is interesting because this species has not been discovered from hydrothermal vents in this region; the dominant species in this region, including the neighbouring Myojin Knoll Caldera, is B. septemdierum.
The crystallinity, electrical, and optical properties of the ferroelectric/fluorescent oxide structures using sol-gel-derived (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 (BST) and (Sr0.8Eu0.2)Bi2.2Ta2O9 (Eu-SBT) grown on STO(110) single crystal substrates were introduced for the first time. In the present structures, the SBT films partly included a (116)-oriented Eu-SBT crystallite. The polarization vs. voltage characteristics of the BST/Eu-SBT structures showed the hysteresis loop caused by spontaneous polarization reversal, and then several emission peaks from Eu3+ ion were observed in a photoluminescence spectrum of a present BST/Eu-SBT structure.
Heart transplantation remains the only realistic therapeutic option for children with end-stage heart disease. The main indication for transplantation in children is severe heart failure (HF) associated with impaired function of the systemic ventricle. Extensive evidence supports the use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to select patients with increased short-term mortality who should be offered transplantation. Transplantation for congenital heart disease illustrates best many of the peculiarities of heart transplant in the pediatric age group. The assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is particularly crucial in order to reduce the rate of right HF post-transplant, but it can be technically difficult, particularly in congenital heart disease. Maintenance therapy is commonly a combination of a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and cell cycle inhibitor. A problem in pediatric transplantation is the presence of pre-existing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, which have been linked to increased hyperacute, cellular, and humoral rejection and increased mortality posttransplant.
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