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The association between biofilm formation and the accessory gene regulator (agr) types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in our hospital were investigated. The biofilm index and the incidence of MRSA strains carrying agr-2 in the infection group (n = 91) were significantly higher than were those in the carrier group (n = 225), suggesting that biofilm formation and agr type are associated with nosocomial MRSA infections.
To evaluate the usefulness of an assay using two polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping methods in the practical surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Nosocomial infection and colonization were surveyed monthly in a university hospital in Japan for 20 months. Genotyping with mec-HVR is based on the size of the mec-associated hypervariable region amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Toxin genotyping uses a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to amplify eight staphylococcal toxin genes.
Eight hundred nine MRSA isolates were classified into 49 genotypes. We observed differing prevalences of genotypes for different hospital wards, and could rapidly demonstrate the similarity of genotype for outbreak isolates. The incidence of genotype D: SEC/TSST1 was significantly higher in isolates causing nosocomial infections (49.5%; 48 of 97) than in nasal isolates (31.4%; 54 of 172) (P = .004), suggesting that this genotype may represent the nosocomial strains.
The combined use of these two genotyping methods resulted in improved discriminatory ability and should be further investigated.
We have incorporated several percent of nitrogen only near the top surfaces of thermally grown oxides by exposure to fluorine gas at room temperature followed by an atomic nitrogen treatment at 550°C. The depth profiles and the bonding of incorporated nitrogen atoms have been studied by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
MOS devices were fabricated using the nitrided oxide with boron doped polycrystalline silicon gate. From the capacitance-voltage measurements we confirmed that the nitrided oxide would prevent the boron penetration in comparison with the conventional oxide films. The proposed technique identifies a unique process for obtaining high quality ultrathin dielectrics.
The interaction between EL5 and EL6 in the n-type bulk GaAs have been observed by using isothermal constant-capacitance voltage transient spectroscopy (CCVTS). Each CCVTS spectrum of EL5 and EL6 was broader than a theoretical one expected for a single level, and was found to be consistently interpreted by two main trap components. With the increase of the filling pulse duration in a wide range, one component of EL6 decreased to about 50 % of its initial value, while one component of EL5 increased and saturated. This variation in peak heights could be reversed by controlling electron occupation fractions of EL5 and EL6 by application of two adjacent filling pulses. Such interaction between both levels was commonly observed in n-type bulk GaAs independent of carrier density.
Properties of medium-deep traps in n-type undoped GaAs crystals grown by arsenic-pressure controlled Czochralski (PCZ) method were studied by using capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS) and temperature-dependent Hall (TDH) measurement. EL3 and EL6-like (EM2) traps were dominant medium-deep traps in D LTS measurements. The dependence of EM2 peak height on the duration of filling pulse and the detailed analysis of CTS showed that the trap EM2 spectrum consisted of three electron traps which had thermal emission activation energies of approximately 0.35 eV and various capture cross sections with activation energies for electron capture. On the other hand, the trap EL6 spectrum in n-type LEC GaAs was described by two levels of traps with activation energies of 0.32 eV and 0.33 eV for electron emission, respectively. It was concluded that so-called EL6 formed a family and some of its components were classified as defects with large lattice relaxation.
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