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Although serum lactate levels are widely accepted markers of haemodynamic instability, an alternative method to evaluate haemodynamic stability/instability continuously and non-invasively may assist in improving the standard of patient care. We hypothesise that blood lactate in paediatric ICU patients can be predicted using machine learning applied to arterial waveforms and perioperative characteristics.
Forty-eight post-operative children, median age 4 months (2.9–11.8 interquartile range), mean baseline heart rate of 131 beats per minute (range 33–197), mean lactate level at admission of 22.3 mg/dL (range 6.3–71.1), were included. Morphological arterial waveform characteristics were acquired and analysed. Predicting lactate levels was accomplished using regression-based supervised learning algorithms, evaluated with hold-out cross-validation, including, basing prediction on the currently acquired physiological measurements along with those acquired at admission, as well as adding the most recent lactate measurement and the time since that measurement as prediction parameters. Algorithms were assessed with mean absolute error, the average of the absolute differences between actual and predicted lactate concentrations. Low values represent superior model performance.
The best performing algorithm was the tuned random forest, which yielded a mean absolute error of 3.38 mg/dL when predicting blood lactate with updated ground truth from the most recent blood draw.
The random forest is capable of predicting serum lactate levels by analysing perioperative variables, including the arterial pressure waveform. Thus, machine learning can predict patient blood lactate levels, a proxy for haemodynamic instability, non-invasively, continuously and with accuracy that may demonstrate clinical utility.
We describe the case of a 21-year-old patient who underwent repairs for multiple lesions including aortic and pulmonary valve replacements, right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, revision of the right pulmonary artery route, and a repair of partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, which was diagnosed during this fourth sternotomy. For these patients with adult CHD, it is most important to address all underlying factors as much as possible at the redo surgery.
There is no consensus or theoretical explanation regarding the optimal location for the fenestration during the Fontan operation. We investigated the impact of the location of the fenestration on Fontan haemodynamics using a three-dimensional Fontan model in various physiological conditions.
A three-dimensional Fontan model was constructed on the basis of CT images, and a 4-mm-diameter fenestration was located between the extracardiac Fontan conduit and the right atrium at three positions: superior, middle, and inferior part of the conduit. Haemodynamics in the Fontan route were analysed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model in realistic physiological conditions, which were predicted using a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system. The respiratory effect of the caval flow was taken into account. The flow rate through the fenestration, the effect of lowering the central venous pressure, and wall shear stress in the Fontan circuit were evaluated under central venous pressures of 10, 15, and 20 mmHg. The pulse power index and pulsatile energy loss index were calculated as energy loss indices.
Under all central venous pressures, the middle-part fenestration demonstrated the most significant effect on enhancing the flow rate through the fenestration while lowering the central venous pressure. The middle-part fenestration produced the highest time-averaged wall shear stress, pressure pulse index, and pulsatile energy loss index.
Despite slightly elevated energy loss, the middle-part fenestration most significantly increased cardiac output and lowered central venous pressure under respiration in the Fontan circulation.
Objective: Despite the broadened indications for Fontan procedure, there are patients who could not proceed to Fontan procedure because of the strict Fontan criteria during the early period. Some patients suffer from post-Glenn complications such as hypoxia, arrhythmia, or fatigue with exertion long after the Glenn procedure. We explored the possibility of Fontan completion for those patients. Methods: Between 2004 and 2010, five consecutive patients aged between 13 and 31 years (median 21) underwent Fontan completion. These patients had been followed up for more than 10 years (10 to 13, median 11) after Glenn procedure as non-Fontan candidates. We summarise these patients retrospectively in terms of their pre-operative physiological condition, surgical strategy, and problems that these patients hold. Results: Pre-operative catheterisation showed pulmonary vascular resistance ranging from 0.9 to 3.7 (median 2.2), pulmonary to systemic flow ratio of 0.3 to 1.6 (median 0.9), and two patients had significant aortopulmonary collaterals. Extracardiac total cavopulmonary connections were performed in three patients, lateral tunnel total cavopulmonary connection in one patient, and intracardiac total cavopulmonary connection in one patient, without a surgical fenestration. Concomitant surgeries were required including valve surgeries – atrioventricular valve plasty in three patients and tricuspid valve replacement in one patient; systemic outflow tract obstruction release – Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure in two patients and subaortic stenosis resection in one patient; and anti-arrhythmic therapies – maze procedure in two patients, cryoablation in two patients, and pacemaker implantation in two patients. All patients are now in New York Heart Association category I. Conclusion: Patients often suffer from post-Glenn complications. Of those, if they are re-examined carefully, some may have a chance to undergo Fontan completion and benefit from it. Multiple lesions such as atrioventricular valve regurgitation, systemic outflow obstruction, or arrhythmia should be surgically repaired concomitantly.
The surgical strategy for patients having a functionally single ventricle associated with totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection and pulmonary atresia with non-confluent pulmonary artery has yet to be agreed. We created an intraatrial tunnel to produce a total cavo-pulmonary connection in such a patient, also creating a confluence for the pulmonary arteries. By minimizing the use of the GoreTex patch, the patient was able to discontinue the use of warfarin.
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