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Maternal prenatal psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, may affect offspring’s motor/cognitive development. However, research findings have been inconsistent. We used a dataset from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study to evaluate associations between maternal six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) scores and motor/cognitive development among offspring at two years of age. Their offspring’s motor/cognitive development was assessed using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. Records for 1859 male and 1817 female offspring were analyzed. The maternal K6 was administered twice during pregnancy: at a median of 14.6 weeks (M-T1) and 27.3 weeks (M-T2) of gestation. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the group with K6 scores ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2 as a reference. In the group with K6 scores ≥5 at both M-T1 and M-T2, male offspring had significantly lower developmental quotients (DQ) in the posture-motor area (partial regression coefficient [B]: −3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.92 to −1.44) and language-social area (B: −1.93; 95%CI: −3.73 to −0.12), while female offspring had a lower DQ for the language-social area (B: −1.95; 95%CI: −3.73 to −0.17). In those with K6 scores ≥5 only at M-T1 or M-T2, male and female offspring did not differ significantly in DQ for any area. Continuous maternal psychological distress from the first to the second half of pregnancy was associated with lower motor and verbal cognitive development in male offspring and lower verbal cognitive development in female offspring at 2 years compared with the group without persistent maternal prenatal psychological distress.
Maternal prenatal psychological distress, which includes depression and anxiety, affects the onset of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is no consistent knowledge regarding at which term during pregnancy psychological distress affects the risk of ASD among children. We used a dataset obtained from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, which is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study, to evaluate the association between the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and ASD among 3-year-old children. A total of 78,745 children were analyzed, and 355 of them were diagnosed with ASD (0.45%). The maternal K6 was administered twice during pregnancy: at a median of 15.1 weeks (M-T1) and at that of 27.4 weeks (M-T2) of gestation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the group with a maternal K6 score of ≥5 at both M-T1 and M-T2 was significantly associated with ASD among the children (adjusted odds ratio, 1.440; 95% confidence interval, 1.104–1.877) compared to the group with a score of ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2. There was no significant difference between the group with a score of ≥5 only at M-T1 or M-T2 and that with a score of ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2. In conclusion, from the first to the second half of pregnancy, continuous maternal psychological distress was associated with ASD among 3-year-old children. Contrarily, in the group without persistent maternal psychological distress during pregnancy, there was no significant association.
We evaluated the association between maternal prenatal folic acid supplementation/dietary folate intake and motor and cognitive development in 2-year-old offspring using data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study database. Neurodevelopment of 2-year-old offspring were evaluated using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. In total, data of 3839 offspring were analysed. For folic acid supplementation, a multiple regression analysis showed that offspring of mothers who started using folic acid supplements before conception had a significantly lower developmental quotient (DQ) in the postural-motor DQ area than offspring of mothers who did not use them at any time throughout their pregnancy (partial regression coefficient (B) −2·596, 95 % CI −4·738, −0·455). Regarding daily dietary folate intake from preconception to early pregnancy, a multiple regression analysis showed that the group with ≥ 200 µg had a significantly higher DQ in the language-social area than the group with <200 µg. The DQ was higher in the ≥ 400 µg group (B 2·532, 95 % CI 0·201, 4·863) than the 200 to <400 µg group (B 1·437, 95 % CI 0·215, 2·660). In conclusion, our study showed that maternal adequate dietary folate intake from preconception to early pregnancy has a beneficial association with verbal cognition development in 2-year-old offspring. On the other hand, mothers who started using folic acid supplements before conception had an inverse association with motor development in 2-year-old offspring. There were no details on the amount of folic acid in the supplements used and frequency of use. Therefore, further studies are required.
To examine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and tap test response to elucidate the effects of comorbidity of AD in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).
Osaka University Hospital.
Patients with possible iNPH underwent a CSF tap test.
Concentrations of amyloid beta (Aβ) 1–40, 1–42, and total tau in CSF were measured. The response of tap test was judged using Timed Up and Go test (TUG), 10-m reciprocation walking test (10MWT), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and iNPH grading scale. The ratio of Aβ1–42 to Aβ1–40 (Aβ42/40 ratio) and total tau concentration was compared between tap test-negative (iNPH-nTT) and -positive (iNPH-pTT) patients.
We identified 27 patients as iNPH-nTT and 81 as iNPH-pTT. Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly lower (mean [SD] = 0.063 [0.026] vs. 0.083 [0.036], p = 0.008), and total tau in CSF was significantly higher (mean [SD] = 385.6 [237.2] vs. 293.6 [165.0], p = 0.028) in iNPH-nTT than in iNPH-pTT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that low Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly associated with the negativity of the tap test. The response of cognition was significantly related to Aβ42/40 ratio. The association between Aβ42/40 ratio and tap test response, especially in cognition, remained after adjusting for disease duration and severity at baseline.
A low CSF Aβ42/40 ratio is associated with a poorer cognitive response, but not gait and urinary response, to a tap test in iNPH. Even if CSF biomarkers suggest AD comorbidity, treatment with iNPH may be effective for gait and urinary dysfunction.
New small unmanned air vehicles designated as micro air vehicles (MAVs) are increasingly attractive for research, environmental observation, and commercial purposes. As described herein, the feasibility of a system for wireless power transmission via microwaves for MAVs was investigated. For its light weight and flexibility, a textile-based rectenna was proposed for microwave wireless power transmission of MAVs. To investigate bending effects on radiation performance, a microstrip patch antenna with a 5.8 GHz left-hand circular polarization was developed on a textile substrate. The antenna return loss, 20 dB, increased slightly with the antenna bending angle. An axial ratio <3 dB was maintained when the antenna bend angle was <30°. A rectification circuit was formed on the back side felt with sandwiched copper foil as a ground plate. Its weight per unit area was 0.08 g/m2, with maximum rectification efficiency of 58% with 100 Ω load at 63 mW input power. The average and maximum total transmission efficiency using the 5.8 GHz multiple rectenna with a 2.45 GHz retrodirective system were, respectively, 0.44 and 0.60%. The possibility and feasibility of microwave power transmission system using the textile-based rectenna were evaluated.
In addition to SNP and SIN-1, SNAP suppresses AMPA responses. This suppression is antagonized by carboxy-PTIO in cultured chick cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Intracellular application of cGMP shows a long-lasting suppression of AMPA responses mimicking the cerebellar LTD. These recent results demonstrate that NO can induce LTD-like suppression of AMPA responses and intracellular cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase participate in this suppression. [CRÉPEL et al.; LINDEN; VINCENT]
We characterize the electron density distributions of preformed plasma for laser-accelerated proton generation. The preformed plasma of a titanium target 3 μm thick is generated by prepulse and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of a high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser and is measured with an interferometer using a second harmonic probe beam. High-energy protons are obtained by reducing the size of the preformed plasma by changing the ASE duration before main pulse at the front side (laser incidence side) of the target. Simulation results with two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code are close to the experimental results for low-density region ~4 × 1019 cm−3 at the front side. In the high-density region near to the target surface, the interferometry underestimates the density due to the substantial refraction. The characterization of hydrodynamic expansion with the interferometer and simulation is a useful tool for investigation of high-energy proton generation.
Human herpesvirus 6(HHV-6) is a human pathogen of emerging clinical significance. HHV-6 was first isolated from patients with lymphoproliferative disorders in 1986 (Salahuddin et al., 1986). HHV-6 isolates are classified into two groups as variants A(HHV-6A) and variant B(HHV-6B) (Schirmer et al., 1991. The two variants are closely related but show consistent differences in biological, immunological, epidemiological, and molecular properties. HHV-6B is the major causative agent of exanthem subitum (ES) (Yamanishi et al., 1988), but no clear disease has yet been associated with HHV-6A.
Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) was isolated in 1990 from a healthy individual whose cells were stimulated with antibody against CD3 and then incubated with interleukin-2 (Frenkel et al., 1990). This virus is one of the causative agents of ES (Tanaka et al., 1994). Therefore, HHV-6 and HHV-7 are also called Roseolovirus. HHV-6 and HHV-7 are ubiquitous, and more than 90% of adults have antibody to both viruses. These viruses have extensive homology and belong to the β-herpesvirus subfamily.
The genome of HHV-6A is 159 321 bp in size, has a base composition of 43% G + C, and contains 119 open reading frames. The overall structure is 143 kb bounded by 8 kb of direct repeats, DRL (left) and DRR (right), containing 0.35 kb of terminal and junctional arrays of human telomere-like simple repeats (Gompels et al., 1995). A total of 115 potential open reading frames (ORFs) were identified within the 161 573-bp contiguous sequence of the entire HHV-6B genome (HST) (Isegawa et al., 1999).
We observed a preformed plasma of an aluminum slab target produced by a high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser. The expansion length of the preformed plasma at the electron density of 3 × 1018 cm−3, which was the detection limit, was around 100 μm measured with a laser interferometer. In order to characterize quantitatively and to control the preformed plasmas, we perform a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation. The expansion length of the preformed plasma was almost the same as the experimental result, if we assumed that the amplified spontaneous emission lasted 3.5 ns before the main pulse arrived.
High-energy protons are generated by focusing an ultrashort pulsed
high intensity laser at the Advanced Photon Research Center, JAERI-Kansai
onto thin (thickness <10 μm) Tantalum targets. The laser
intensities are about 4 × 1018 W/cm2. The
prepulse level of the laser pulse is measured with combination of a PIN
photo diode and a cross correlator and is less than 10−6.
A quarter-wave plate is installed into the laser beam line to create
circularly polarized pulses. Collimated high energy protons are observed
with CH coated Tantalum targets irradiated with the circularly polarized
laser pulses. The beam divergence of the generated proton beam is measured
with a CR-39 track detector and is about 6 mrad.
We studied the EL behaviors of benzoheterocyclic derivatives as emitting and hole transport layers for organic light-emitting-diodes (OLEDs). First, we studied the benzoheterocyclic derivatives having stylyl group, triphenylamine group and benzoxazole or benzothiazole group as an emission layer. These devices emitted a blue-green light. The current densities of the OLED having these benzoheterocyclic derivatives as an emission layer were higher than that of the Alq3 OLED at same applied voltage. However, these devices did not have a high EL efficiency (maximum 0.1 lm/W). From these results, in these benzoheterocyclic derivatives having a triphenylamine group, we thought that holes could flow out from hole transport to cathode. We newly synthesized dimer-type benzoheterocyclic derivatives without a triphenylamine group, which have benzoheterocycle at both sides. The current densities of the OLEDs having dimer-type benzoheterocyclic derivatives was more strongly suppressed than that of the OLEDs having benzoheterocyclic derivatives with a triphenylamine group at same applied voltage, but the EL efficiency could not be improved by dimerization and eliminating of a triphenyldiamine group obtained. Next, we studied the TPD derivatives having benzoxazole, benzothiazole and stylyl groups as hole transport layer. In new TPD derivatives, the EL efficiency the OLEDs having the TPD derivatives with stylyl groups was the best efficiency of all. The EL efficiency of ITO/a TPD derivative with stylyl groups/Alq3/AlLi is 1. 1 lm/W (max. luminance 12000cd/m2).
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