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We have developed the bispectral electroencephalography (BSEEG) method for detection of delirium and prediction of poor outcomes.
To improve the BSEEG method by introducing a new EEG device.
In a prospective cohort study, EEG data were obtained and BSEEG scores were calculated. BSEEG scores were filtered on the basis of standard deviation (s.d.) values to exclude signals with high noise. Both non-filtered and s.d.-filtered BSEEG scores were analysed. BSEEG scores were compared with the results of three delirium screening scales: the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS) and the Delirium Observation Screening Scale (DOSS). Additionally, the 365-day mortalities and the length of stay (LOS) in the hospital were analysed.
We enrolled 279 elderly participants and obtained 620 BSEEG recordings; 142 participants were categorised as BSEEG-positive, reflecting slower EEG activity. BSEEG scores were higher in the CAM-ICU-positive group than in the CAM-ICU-negative group. There were significant correlations between BSEEG scores and scores on the DRS and the DOSS. The mortality rate of the BSEEG-positive group was significantly higher than that of the BSEEG-negative group. The LOS of the BSEEG-positive group was longer compared with that of the BSEEG-negative group. BSEEG scores after s.d. filtering showed stronger correlations with delirium screening scores and more significant prediction of mortality.
We confirmed the usefulness of the BSEEG method for detection of delirium and of delirium severity, and prediction of patient outcomes with a new EEG device.
A novel and fundamental method was reported to judge states of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using the capacitance and the voltage of the cells that were estimated from the real-time currents and voltage characteristics of the cells. We measured the differential capacitance, that is, dQ/dV or delta Q/ delta V that is equal to the currents (I) divided by differential voltages (dV/dt) calculated from the current and the voltage characteristics of the cell during the charging/ discharging, where Q is the charge that flows through the cell, V is the voltage of the cell and t is time. It is thought that the capacitance decrease with the degradation of the cell because the effective area of the electrodes is decreasing due to formation of undesirable compounds. The differential capacitance in some specific voltage range for the LIBs was approximately directly proportional to the state of the degradation of the cell. Therefore, it is concluded that the novel method is very useful to judge the state of the LIBs.
A rare case of synovial osteochodromatosis of the temporo-mandibular joint is presented. Important diagnostic information can be obtained by CT, MRI, 99m Tc bone scan and aspiration biopsy. Observation using a light microscope showed mild cellular atypia, but the hallmarks characteristic of chondrosarcoma were not found. Observation using an electron microscope showed the mature chondrocytes contained a well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum. Histological evaluation indicated that the present case was benign synovial osteochondromatosis in an early stage.
A case showing various involuntary movements during mianserin treatment and after a withdrawal of mianserin is described. This is the first case report of mianserin-induced involuntary movements. The report suggests that these symptoms can occur with a therapeutic dose of mianserin in certain susceptible patients.
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