To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Residents who lived near the Fukushima Power Plant accident were forced to change their lifestyle after the 2011 accident. This study aimed to elucidate the association of resident lifestyle and psychological factors with onset of hepatobiliary enzyme abnormalities (HEA) after the accident.
This longitudinal study included 15705 residents who underwent a comprehensive health check, as well as a mental health and lifestyle survey between June 2011 and March 2012. Follow-up surveys were conducted between June, 2012 and March 2018. Risk factors for new HEA onset were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model, moreover, population attributable risks for new HEA onset were calculated.
HEA developed in 29.7% of subjects. In addition to metabolic factors such as overweight, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia; there were differences in alcohol intake, evacuation, unemployment, educational background, and psychological distress between subjects with and without HEA onset. After we adjusted for potential confounding factors, an association of being overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, as well as alcohol consumption, evacuation, and psychological distress with increased risk of HEA onset was realized. Among these identified risk factors, evacuation accounted for the greatest share.
Metabolic characteristics and disaster-related lifestyle aspects, including mental status, were risk factors for HAE onset after the Fukushima Power Plant accident.
This study evaluated the association between maternal magnesium intake (MMI) and childhood wheezing incidence in 3-year-old offspring. We hypothesised that higher MMI imparts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that decrease childhood wheezing incidence in offspring. Data of 79 907 women (singleton pregnancy, ≥ 22 weeks) from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (enrolled between 2011 and 2014) were analysed. Participants were categorised into quintiles of MMI (< 148·00, 148·00–187·99, 188·00–228·99, 229·00–289·99 and ≥ 290·00 mg/d), quintiles of adjusted MMI for daily energy intake (aMMI) (< 0·107, 0·107–0·119, 0·120–0·132, 0·133–0·149 and ≥ 0·150 mg/kcal) and MMI levels either below or above the ideal value (< 310·00 or ≥ 310·00 mg/d). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate OR for the incidence of childhood wheezing in offspring among participants in each MMI category, with the lowest MMI group considered the reference group. Maternal demographic, socio-economic, medical and other nutrient intake backgrounds were considered potential confounding factors. The adjusted OR (aOR) for childhood wheezing in the offspring of women with the highest MMI was 1·09 (95 % CI, 1·00, 1·20), whereas that calculated based on aMMI categories and offspring of women with above-ideal MMI levels remained unchanged. The highest MMI was associated with slightly increased childhood wheezing incidence in the offspring. MMI during pregnancy had an insignificant clinical impact on this incidence; moreover, modifying MMI would not significantly improve childhood wheezing incidence in offspring. Therefore, further studies should clarify the association between other prenatal factors and childhood wheezing incidence in offspring.
Maternal prenatal psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, may affect offspring’s motor/cognitive development. However, research findings have been inconsistent. We used a dataset from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study to evaluate associations between maternal six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) scores and motor/cognitive development among offspring at two years of age. Their offspring’s motor/cognitive development was assessed using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. Records for 1859 male and 1817 female offspring were analyzed. The maternal K6 was administered twice during pregnancy: at a median of 14.6 weeks (M-T1) and 27.3 weeks (M-T2) of gestation. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the group with K6 scores ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2 as a reference. In the group with K6 scores ≥5 at both M-T1 and M-T2, male offspring had significantly lower developmental quotients (DQ) in the posture-motor area (partial regression coefficient [B]: −3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.92 to −1.44) and language-social area (B: −1.93; 95%CI: −3.73 to −0.12), while female offspring had a lower DQ for the language-social area (B: −1.95; 95%CI: −3.73 to −0.17). In those with K6 scores ≥5 only at M-T1 or M-T2, male and female offspring did not differ significantly in DQ for any area. Continuous maternal psychological distress from the first to the second half of pregnancy was associated with lower motor and verbal cognitive development in male offspring and lower verbal cognitive development in female offspring at 2 years compared with the group without persistent maternal prenatal psychological distress.
Maternal prenatal psychological distress, which includes depression and anxiety, affects the onset of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is no consistent knowledge regarding at which term during pregnancy psychological distress affects the risk of ASD among children. We used a dataset obtained from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, which is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study, to evaluate the association between the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and ASD among 3-year-old children. A total of 78,745 children were analyzed, and 355 of them were diagnosed with ASD (0.45%). The maternal K6 was administered twice during pregnancy: at a median of 15.1 weeks (M-T1) and at that of 27.4 weeks (M-T2) of gestation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the group with a maternal K6 score of ≥5 at both M-T1 and M-T2 was significantly associated with ASD among the children (adjusted odds ratio, 1.440; 95% confidence interval, 1.104–1.877) compared to the group with a score of ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2. There was no significant difference between the group with a score of ≥5 only at M-T1 or M-T2 and that with a score of ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2. In conclusion, from the first to the second half of pregnancy, continuous maternal psychological distress was associated with ASD among 3-year-old children. Contrarily, in the group without persistent maternal psychological distress during pregnancy, there was no significant association.
We evaluated the association between maternal prenatal folic acid supplementation/dietary folate intake and motor and cognitive development in 2-year-old offspring using data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study database. Neurodevelopment of 2-year-old offspring were evaluated using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. In total, data of 3839 offspring were analysed. For folic acid supplementation, a multiple regression analysis showed that offspring of mothers who started using folic acid supplements before conception had a significantly lower developmental quotient (DQ) in the postural-motor DQ area than offspring of mothers who did not use them at any time throughout their pregnancy (partial regression coefficient (B) −2·596, 95 % CI −4·738, −0·455). Regarding daily dietary folate intake from preconception to early pregnancy, a multiple regression analysis showed that the group with ≥ 200 µg had a significantly higher DQ in the language-social area than the group with <200 µg. The DQ was higher in the ≥ 400 µg group (B 2·532, 95 % CI 0·201, 4·863) than the 200 to <400 µg group (B 1·437, 95 % CI 0·215, 2·660). In conclusion, our study showed that maternal adequate dietary folate intake from preconception to early pregnancy has a beneficial association with verbal cognition development in 2-year-old offspring. On the other hand, mothers who started using folic acid supplements before conception had an inverse association with motor development in 2-year-old offspring. There were no details on the amount of folic acid in the supplements used and frequency of use. Therefore, further studies are required.
To examine the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and tap test response to elucidate the effects of comorbidity of AD in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).
Osaka University Hospital.
Patients with possible iNPH underwent a CSF tap test.
Concentrations of amyloid beta (Aβ) 1–40, 1–42, and total tau in CSF were measured. The response of tap test was judged using Timed Up and Go test (TUG), 10-m reciprocation walking test (10MWT), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and iNPH grading scale. The ratio of Aβ1–42 to Aβ1–40 (Aβ42/40 ratio) and total tau concentration was compared between tap test-negative (iNPH-nTT) and -positive (iNPH-pTT) patients.
We identified 27 patients as iNPH-nTT and 81 as iNPH-pTT. Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly lower (mean [SD] = 0.063 [0.026] vs. 0.083 [0.036], p = 0.008), and total tau in CSF was significantly higher (mean [SD] = 385.6 [237.2] vs. 293.6 [165.0], p = 0.028) in iNPH-nTT than in iNPH-pTT. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that low Aβ42/40 ratio was significantly associated with the negativity of the tap test. The response of cognition was significantly related to Aβ42/40 ratio. The association between Aβ42/40 ratio and tap test response, especially in cognition, remained after adjusting for disease duration and severity at baseline.
A low CSF Aβ42/40 ratio is associated with a poorer cognitive response, but not gait and urinary response, to a tap test in iNPH. Even if CSF biomarkers suggest AD comorbidity, treatment with iNPH may be effective for gait and urinary dysfunction.
Biometric recognition technologies have become more important in the modern society due to their convenience with the recent informatization and the dissemination of network services. Among such technologies, face recognition is one of the most convenient and practical because it enables authentication from a distance without requiring any authentication operations manually. As far as we know, face recognition is susceptible to the changes in the appearance of faces due to aging, the surrounding lighting, and posture. There were a number of technical challenges that need to be resolved. Recently, remarkable progress has been made thanks to the advent of deep learning methods. In this position paper, we provide an overview of face recognition technology and introduce its related applications, including face presentation attack detection, gaze estimation, person re-identification and image data mining. We also discuss the research challenges that still need to be addressed and resolved.
Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
To identify predictive factors for hyperglycaemic progression in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to determine whether hyperglycaemic progression rates differ among antipsychotics in regular clinical practice.
We recruited 1166 patients who initially had normal or prediabetic glucose levels for a nationwide, multisite, l-year prospective cohort study to determine predictive factors for hyperglycaemic progression. We also examined whether hyperglycaemic progression varied among patients receiving monotherapy with the six most frequently used antipsychotics.
High baseline serum triglycerides and coexisting hypertension significantly predicted hyperglycaemic progression. The six most frequently used antipsychotics did not significantly differ in their associated hyperglycaemic progression rates over the 1-year observation period.
Clinicians should carefully evaluate baseline serum triglycerides and coexisting hypertension and perform strict longitudinal monitoring irrespective of the antipsychotic used.
Declaration of interest
The authors report no financial or other relationship that is relevant to the subject of this article. Relevant financial activities outside the submitted work are as follows. I.K. has received honoraria from Astellas, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Nippon Chemiphar, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin; has received research/grant support from AbbVie GK, Asahi Kasei Pharma, Astellas, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin; and is a member of the advisory boards of Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma. Y.T. has received speaker's honoraria from Dainippon-Sumitomo Pharma, Otsuka, Meiji-Seika Pharma, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Daiichi-Sankyo Company, UCB Japan and Ono Pharmaceutical. K.U. has received honoraria from Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin. B.Y. has received speaker's honoraria from Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Janssen Pharmaceutical. J. I. has received honoraria from Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Mochida Pharma.
Treatment-resistant depression is a challenging problem in the clinical setting. Tipepidine has been used as a non-narcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959.
We administered tipepidine to 11 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Tipepidine was given for 8 weeks as an augmentation.
Tipepidine significantly improved depression scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression. Add-on treatment with tipepidine significantly improved scores on the trail making test and Rey auditory verbal learning test. However, no changes were observed in blood concentrations of stress-related hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate) with tipepidine augmentation.
Tipepidine might be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment-resistant depression.
High-resolution and “environmental cell” microscopy were applied for surveying the reaction of hydrides in Vanadium and Magnesium based alloys, which are candidate for hydrogen storage materials of advanced hydrogen energy systems. For clarify the hydrogenation process, in-situ experiment was carried out by using 200 kV TEM equipped with a newly developed environmental cell, which is enable to observe transmitted image and electron-diffraction under gas reaction under hydrogen environment of 0.1 MPa at room temperature. In case of Vanadium, bending fringe was created under hydrogen-gas of 0.1 MPa, which means that hydrogen reaction is not so quick in this case, and the local stress due to the hydrogen solution caused the fringes. In case of Magnesium, the gas reacted with the powders and showed the swelling, where the surface steps with several ten nm become to more straight, and also SADP showed the formation of MgH2. In-situ experiment for hydrogenation reaction by using the environmental cell has started recently, therefore the precise studies will be continued, as well as its improvement, especially in the transparence films.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.