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We have developed a technique of X-ray diffraction in order to measure strain fields near semiconductor surface and interface. The diffraction geometry is using the extremely asymmetric Bragg-case bulk reflection of a small incident angle to the surface and a large angle exiting from the surface. The incident angle of the X-rays is set near critical angle of total reflection by tuning X-ray energy of synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory, Japan. For thermally grown-silicon oxide/Si(100) interface, the X-ray intensity of the silicon substrate 311 reflection has been measured. From comparison of the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of X-ray rocking curves of various thickness of silicon oxides, it has been revealed that silicon substrate lattice is highly strained in the thin ( less than about 5 nm) silicon oxide/silicon system. In order to know the original silicon surface strain, we have also performed the same kind measurements in the ultra-high vacuum chamber. A clean Si(l 11) 7×7 surface gives sharper X-ray diffraction peak than that of the native oxide/Si(l 11) system. From these measurements, it is concluded that the thin silicon oxide film itself gives strong strain fields to the silicon substrates, which may be the reason of the existence of the structural transition layer at the silicon oxide/Si interface.
In order to investigate the initial oxidation process Qf the Si (111) surface, we have studied the molecular beam deposited Si0 2/Si(111)-7×7 interface structure using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction geometry. We suggest a three-fold symmetry structural model composed of stacking fault layer, dimer layer and additional ordered atoms. The three-fold symmetry structure comes from the preference for oxidation in the faulted half of the 7×7 structure.
Surface superstructures (reconstructed structures) have been observed by many authors. However, it is not easy to confirm that a superstructure does exist at an interface between two solid layers. The present paper reports a direct observation, by a grazing incidence x-ray diffraction technique with use of synchrotron radiation, of superstructures at the interface. Firstly, the boron-induced R30° reconstruction at the Si interface has been investigated. At the a Si/Si(111) interface, boron atoms at 1/3 ML are substituted for silicon atoms, thus forming a R30° lattice. Even at the interface between a solid phase epitaxial Si(111) layer and a Si(111) substrate, the boron-induced R30° reconstruction has been also observed. Secondly, SiO2/Si(100)-2×l interfacial superstructures have been investigated. Interfacial superstructures have been only observed in the samples of which SiO2 layers have been deposited with a molecular beam deposition method. Finally, the interfaces of MOCVD-grown AIN/GaAs(100) have been shown to have 1×4 and 1×6 superstructures.
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