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Empirical studies between anger and anger-provoking cognitive variables in children and adolescents are lacking, despite numerous studies on internalising and externalising problems.
The purpose of this study was to develop new questionnaires for anger-provoking cognitive errors and automatic thoughts, and examine relationships between anger, cognitive errors, and automatic thoughts in children and adolescents.
Participants were 485 Japanese children and adolescents aged 9–15 years old (254 females; average age 12.07; SD = 1.81). They completed the Anger Children’s Cognitive Error Scale (A-CCES) and the Anger Children’s Automatic Thought Scale (A-CATS), which were developed in this study, as well as the Anger Scale for Children and Adolescents and the Japanese version of Short Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale.
Both the A-CCES and the A-CATS had adequate reliability (internal consistency) and validity (face validity, structural validity and construct validity). A hierarchal regression analysis indicated that automatic thoughts were positively and moderately related to anger (β = .37) after controlling for age, gender, anxiety symptoms, cognitive errors and interaction term. Moreover, a mediation analysis indicated that automatic thoughts significantly mediated the relationship between cognitive errors and anger (indirect effect, 0.24; 95% CI: .020 to .036).
This study developed the new questionnaires to assess anger-provoking cognitive errors and automatic thoughts. In addition, this study revealed that automatic thoughts rather than cognitive errors are associated with anger in children and adolescents.
There is increasing support for the efficacy of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety and depression. However, little is known about the applicability of transdiagnostic behavioural interventions for children younger than 12 years old. This study was conducted to examine the feasibility and potential efficacy of Streamlined Transdiagnostic Intervention for Anxiety and Depression (STREAM) for children with anxiety and/or depressive disorders using a randomised controlled design with a wait-list control (WLC) condition and blind-assessments. Of the 22 potential participants, 16 Japanese children (M = 9.81; SD = 0.75; range 9–12 years) with principal anxiety or depressive disorder were eligible and enrolled. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the STREAM or WLC condition. The dropout rates were 0% for both the conditions at post-assessment. Mixed model analyses showed that, although there were no significant interactions at post-assessment between both the conditions, both anxiety and depressive disorders significantly improved at 3 months compared with pre-assessment for the combined condition (the STREAM and WLC conditions). Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of the STREAM in the Japanese clinical setting and potentially supported its efficacy for children with anxiety and depressive disorders at the follow-up assessment.
As McKinsey and Tarski showed, the Stone representation theorem for Boolean algebras extends to algebras with operators to give topological semantics for (classical) propositional modal logic, in which the “necessity” operation is modeled by taking the interior of an arbitrary subset of a topological space. In this article, the topological interpretation is extended in a natural way to arbitrary theories of full first-order logic. The resulting system of S4 first-order modal logic is complete with respect to such topological semantics.
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