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This study examines secular changes in diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) in younger and older Swedish adults, since the turn of this century.
Two cross-sectional health examination surveys were conducted in 2001–2004 (T1) and 2014–2018 (T2). At both times, an eighty-six-item FFQ was embedded in the survey. From the food frequencies and age-standardised portion sizes, GHGE estimates (kg CO2e/year) were calculated. GHGE was modelled as a function of time period and covariates, for five distinct age groups.
The municipality of Gothenburg, in western Sweden.
Women and men aged 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–75 years were randomly selected from the population registry and recruited for examinations. After exclusion of participants with incomplete dietary data, the analytic sample consisted of 2569 individuals at T1 and 2119 at T2.
Lower dietary GHGE scores were observed at T2 compared with T1, in each age group, adjusting for sex, BMI and education. The largest differences in GHGE were observed in the youngest age group (approximately 30 % reduction). Decreasing trends in GHGE from animal-based foods were observed at all ages and were accompanied by smaller increases from plant-based sources in younger groups only. At all ages, GHGE from discretionary foods decreased, and prevalence of overweight remained stable.
Optimal dietary trends should support both human health and planetary health. Our results suggest that Swedish adults have moved in this direction, e.g. through less intake of red meat products and stable weight status.
Consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) among adolescents falls below recommendations in many Western countries. The impact of social and emotional aspects of family life on adolescent dietary behaviour may contribute to this, yet remains under-investigated. The present study examines the association between adolescents’ perceptions of emotional home atmosphere (EHA) and their F&V consumption frequency.
An FFQ was used to assess F&V consumption frequency. EHA was assessed by an eight-item measure with three subscales: perceived home warmth, strictness and relational tension. EHA subscales were used as binary variables: a score equal to or above the median value was considered as a higher perception, while a score below the median was considered as a lower perception of the EHA in question. Country differences in meeting the European 5-a-day recommendations were described. Further, the association between EHA and F&V consumption frequency was investigated using multiple linear regression.
Regional examination centres in eight European countries.
Adolescents (n 3196) aged 12–18 years.
The mean F&V consumption frequency was 3·27 (sd 2·84) times/d. Only 16·1 % of boys and 18 % of girls in our study sample met the recommendation of five F&V daily. After controlling for age, sex, education level of the parents and country of origin, perceived home warmth was associated with a 16 (95 % CI 9, 22) % higher F&V consumption frequency (P < 0·001).
F&V consumption frequency was suboptimal in the survey areas. Interventions targeting perceived warmth as a component of EHA could potentially have a positive effect on adolescents’ dietary behaviour.
The present study investigated the association between sugar and fat intake in childhood in relation to alcohol use in adolescence. We hypothesized that early exposure to diets high in fat and sugar may affect ingestive behaviours later in life, including alcohol use.
Children from the European IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study were examined at ages 5–9 years and followed up at ages 11–16 years. FFQ were completed by parents on behalf of children, and later by adolescents themselves. Complete data were available in 2263 participants. Children’s propensities to consume foods high in fat and sugar were calculated and dichotomized at median values. Adolescents’ use of alcohol was classified as at least weekly v. less frequent use. Log-binomial regression linked sugar and fat consumption in childhood to risk of alcohol use in adolescence, adjusted for relevant covariates.
Five per cent of adolescents reported weekly alcohol consumption. Children with high propensity to consume sugar and fat were at greater risk of later alcohol use, compared with children with low fat and low sugar propensity (relative risk=2·46; 95 % CI 1·47, 4·12), independent of age, sex and survey country. The association was not explained by parental income and education, strict parenting style or child's health-related quality of life and was only partly mediated by sustained consumption of sugar and fat into adolescence.
Frequent consumption of foods high in fat and sugar in childhood predicted regular use of alcohol in adolescence.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and children’s weight status, while considering associated covariates. MS ferments carbohydrates from the diet and contributes to caries by lowering the pH in dental plaque. In adults, high counts of MS in saliva have been associated with overweight, but this has not been shown in children.
Cross-sectional study investigating salivary counts of MS, BMI Z-score, waist circumference, meal frequency, sugar propensity and sleep duration, in children.
Children (n 271) aged 4–11 years.
Medium–high counts of MS were positively associated with higher BMI Z-score (OR=1·6; 95 % CI 1·1, 2·3). Positive associations were also found between medium–high counts of MS and more frequent meals per day (OR=1·5; 95 % CI 1·1, 2·2), greater percentage of sugar-rich foods consumed (OR=1·1; 95 % CI 1·0, 1·3) and female sex (OR=2·4; 95 % CI 1·1, 5·4). A negative association was found between medium–high counts of MS and longer sleep duration (OR=0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 1·0).
BMI Z-score was associated with counts of MS. Promoting adequate sleep duration and limiting the intake frequency of sugar-rich foods and beverages could provide multiple benefits in public health interventions aimed at reducing dental caries and childhood overweight.
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