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The Residual Lesion Score is a novel tool for assessing the achievement of surgical objectives in congenital heart surgery based on widely available clinical and echocardiographic characteristics. This article describes the methodology used to develop the Residual Lesion Score from the previously developed Technical Performance Score for five common congenital cardiac procedures using the RAND Delphi methodology.
A panel of 11 experts from the field of paediatric and congenital cardiology and cardiac surgery, 2 co-chairs, and a consultant were assembled to review and comment on validity and feasibility of measuring the sub-components of intraoperative and discharge Residual Lesion Score for five congenital cardiac procedures. In the first email round, the panel reviewed and commented on the Residual Lesion Score and provided validity and feasibility scores for sub-components of each of the five procedures. In the second in-person round, email comments and scores were reviewed and the Residual Lesion Score revised. The modified Residual Lesion Score was scored independently by each panellist for validity and feasibility and used to develop the “final” Residual Lesion Score.
The Residual Lesion Score sub-components with a median validity score of ≥7 and median feasibility score of ≥4 that were scored without disagreement and with low absolute deviation from the median were included in the “final” Residual Lesion Score.
Using the RAND Delphi methodology, we were able to develop Residual Lesion Score modules for five important congenital cardiac procedures for the Pediatric Heart Network’s Residual Lesion Score study.
Patients with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection can be problematic, particularly those with mixed-type pathology. We aimed to describe a cohort of patients with mixed-type anomalous drainage, highlighting the treatment challenges, and identifying risk factors for poor outcome.
We reviewed the clinical records of patients who underwent repair for mixed-type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection between 1986 and 2015.
A total of 19 patients were identified. The median age and weight of patients at surgery were 18 days (with a range from 1 to 185) and 3.4 kg (with a range from 1.9 to 6.5), respectively. Venous anatomy included a combination of duplicate supracardiac (four), supracardiac and cardiac (11), and supracardiac and infracardiac (four) drainage. Out of 19 patients, six (32%) died within 30 days or the initial hospital stay; two additional patients died from progressive pulmonary vein stenosis at 72 and 201 days, respectively, resulting in 42% mortality within the 1st year. Follow-up data were available for 8/11 long-term survivors. The median follow-up period was 7.3 years (with a range from 1.8 to 15.7). Only one patient underwent re-intervention for recurrent pulmonary vein stenosis. For surgical mortality, no statistically significant risk factors were identified, although the risk trended to be higher (p⩽0.1) with lower age and weight, an infracardiac component, and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. For 1-year mortality, the risk became significant (p⩽0.05) with a lower weight (p=0.01), an infracardiac component (p=0.03), and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (p=0.04).
The surgical and 1-year mortality in patients with mixed-type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is high. On the other hand, among patients who survive past the 1st year, most have good outcomes without subsequent sequelae.
Although much is known about morbidity and mortality, there are limited data focussing on the financial aspect of the Norwood operation. Our objective is to characterise the hospitalisation and detail the hospital costs.
We retrospectively studied 86 newborns with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent Norwood palliation between 2008 and 2012. Clinical and financial data were collected. Financial data have been reported for 2011–2012.
At surgery, median age and weight of the patients were 4 days (range 1–13) and 3 kg (range 2–4.8), respectively. The median time from admission to surgery was 4 days (range 1–10), with the postoperative ICU stay and total length of stay at the hospital being 10 days (range 4–135) and 16 days (range 5–136), respectively. Discharge mortality was 14/86 (16%) patients.
For patients operated on between 2011 and 2012 (n=40), median hospital costs, charges, and collections per patient were $117,021, $433,054, and $198,453, respectively, and mean hospital costs, charges, and collections per patient were $322,765, $1,109,500, and $511,271, respectively.
A breakdown of total hospital costs (direct and indirect) by department showed that the top four areas of resource utilisation (excluding physician fees) were as follows: the cardiac ICU (35%), laboratory (12%), pharmacy (12%), and operating room (7%). Interestingly, point-of-care laboratory evaluations accounted for almost half of the laboratory total (5%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, although only utilised in eight patients between 2011 and 2012, accounted for 7% of utilisation.General radiology only accounted for 2%, despite numerous radiographs.
Limited data are available that detail the hospitalisation and costs associated with the Norwood operation. We hope that this analysis will identify areas for quality and value improvement from both system and patient perspectives.
Background: We have previously identified risk factors for readmission following congenital heart surgery – Hispanic ethnicity, failure to thrive, and original hospital stay more than 10 days. As part of a quality initiative, changes were made to the discharge process in hopes of reducing the impact. All discharges were carried out with an interpreter, medications were delivered to the hospital before discharge, and phone calls were made to families within 72 hours following discharge. We hypothesised that these changes would decrease readmissions. Methods: The current cohort of 635 patients underwent surgery in 2012. Demographic, preoperative, operative, and postoperative variables were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate risk factor analyses were performed. Comparisons were made between the initial (2009) and the current (2012) cohorts. Results: There were 86 readmissions of 77 patients during 2012. Multivariate risk factors for readmission were risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score and initial hospital stay >10 days. In comparing 2009 with 2012, the overall readmission rate was similar (10 versus 12%, p=0.27). Although there were slight decreases in the 2012 readmissions for those patients with Hispanic ethnicity (18 versus 16%, p=0.79), failure to thrive (23 versus 17%, p=0.49), and initial hospital stay >10 days (22 versus 20%, p=0.63), they were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Potential risk factors for readmission following paediatric cardiothoracic surgery have been identified. Although targeted modifications in discharge processes can be made, they may not reduce readmissions. Efforts should continue to identify modifiable factors that can reduce the negative impact of hospital readmissions.
With improvements in technology and surgical technique, paediatric cardiologists are challenging surgeons to repair balanced atrioventricular septal defects in smaller patients. Early repair minimizes aggressive medical therapy to prevent heart failure, maintains growth, and limits exposure to elevated pulmonary pressures. We compare the outcomes of repair among different-sized children.
From December 2002 to July 2005, 92 patients underwent repair of an atrioventricular septal defect with common atrioventricular valvar orifice and balanced ventricles. We reviewed operative and postoperative data. We excluded patients weighing more than 10 kilograms, but included those who underwent concomitant closure of a patent oval foramen or atrial septal defect, or ligation of a patent arterial duct. Those requiring other concomitant procedures were excluded from the analysis.
The median weight at repair was 4.9 kilograms, with a range from 2.93 to 7.9 kilograms, and the median age was 5.1 months, with a range from 0.39 to 9.6 months. Operative data included the time required for cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic cross-clamping, and the overall procedure. These times were not significantly affected by decreasing weight. Postoperative continuous data included duration of ventilation and length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. Stay in intensive care (p = 0.006) and hospital (p = 0.007) both increased significantly with decreasing weight. Postoperative categorical data included presence of residual ventricular septal defects, regurgitation across the left atrioventricular valve, and complications. While there was no difference in residual defects (p = 0.166) or valvar regurgitation (p = 0.729), there was a significantly higher presence of complications with decreasing weight (p = 0.0043). There was no mortality, and no persistent heart block requiring placement of a permanent pacemaker.
Our data shows that, with the exception of a slightly longer and more complicated postoperative course, early surgery for symptomatic patients with atrioventricular septal defects and common atrioventricular valvar orifice can be undertaken safely and effectively in smaller children with excellent outcomes.
Objective: To review, in retrospective fashion, the effect of preoperative mechanical ventilation on neonatal outcomes after cardiac surgery. Methods: We studied 114 newborns less than 15 days old admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit for cardiac surgery. Of the newborns, 71 (62%) were mechanically ventilated at the referring hospital before transport to our institution. Of the 71 ventilated patients, 14 were extubated and breathing spontaneously before cardiac surgery. We compared variable haemodynamics and outcomes between the 57 patients mechanically ventilated at time of cardiac surgery, and the 57 patients breathing spontaneously at this time. Results: Newborns mechanically ventilated before cardiac surgery had increased preoperative haemodynamic compromise, increased postoperative sepsis (p equal to 0.02) and mortality (p equal to 0.005) compared with those breathing spontaneously before cardiac surgery. Conclusion: Newborns requiring preoperative mechanical ventilation had greater risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Heightened vigilance is warranted in this population of patients at high risk.
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