KOKAN region is characterized by undernutrition across all stages of lifecycle. Developmental Origins of Health & Disease hypothesis suggests that environmental influences in the early period of growth and development can contribute to the risks of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in adulthood. Newborns and placentas of 815 pregnant mothers delivered in a rural hospital were studied. We tested the hypothesis that low placental weight will be associated with low birth weight (LBW). Mothers had a mean age of 26 years and were smaller in size at delivery [mean height of 152.1 cm (±6.1 cm), weight 52 kg (±10.2 kg), body mass index (BMI) 22.5 kg/m2 (±4.1 kg/m2)]. Mean placental weight was 488 g (±120 g). Mean birth weight, length, and head circumference of the newborn were 2.54 kg (±0.5 kg), 46.3 cm (±3.1 cm), and 32.7 cm (±1.7 cm), respectively. Prevalence of LBW, stunting, and small head size was 41.6%, 42.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. Maternal height, weight, and BMI at delivery were all positively associated with placental weight (p < 0.01 for all). Mothers with placentas in the lowest placental weight tertile had an increased likelihood of producing an LBW baby [OR 7.7, 95% CI (5.0, 11.8)], a stunted baby [OR 1.9 (1.4, 2.9)], or a baby with a small head circumference [OR 2.4 (1.4, 4.0)]. Mothers in the lowest height tertile had odds of producing a LBW baby [OR 1.8 95% CI (1.2, 2.7)] or a stunted baby [OR 1.6 (1.1, 2.3)]. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of women in KOKAN region which may reduce the risk of NCD.